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Flashcards in St Chpt 9 Deck (39):

An ____ is the preferred strategy whenever conditions and resources-permit an interior attack

Offensive fire attack


A ______ limits operations to the exterior, generally resulting in a larger property loss and limiting rescue options

Defensive decision


The ______ decision is based on staffing available to conduct an interior attack, water supply, ventilation, and most importantly a risk versus benefit analysis

Offensive/defensive decision


A ______ is used whenever the risk vs benefit analysis determines that the risk to firefighters lives and safety outweighs any possible benefit that might be achieved through an offensive attack

Defensive operation


When the IC initiates a _______, the objective is to save property that has not already been destroyed and/or to protect the environment

Defensive fire attack


Many theorists exist regarding collapse zone distances. Some theorists believe that a building will fall ____ of its height.

One third


Using the 12 ft per story estimate, a five story building would be 60 ft in height, requiring a collapse zone of approx ____.

90 ft


As compared to straight stream and fog nozzles, generally maintain better stream continuity for long distances, particularly when the stream is operated in opposition to the wind or there is a crosswind

Solid stream nozzles


If a decision is made to position personnel and equipment within the potential collapse zone, evaluate the building to determine the safest possible location. For example positioning companies at the _____ of the building is usually safer than a frontal attack.



Deal with fire extending from one area of a building to another within a structure

Internal exposures


Many times in a defensive operation the building of origin is recognized as a total loss, therefore, emphasis is placed on protecting _____.

External exposure


Increases as the size of the flame font increases

Radiant heat


When inadequate resources, collapse probability, or fire volume makes a direct attack on the fire ineffective, applying water on the _______ is the best tactic

Exposed structures


The energy levels for radiant heat are inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the heat source and the ______



Wetting the exposure is generally the most effective way to prevent ______



If a _____ fails to control the fire or the effectiveness of a direct attack is questionable for any reason, first cover near by exposures and then direct as much water as possible onto the main body of fire from a safe distance

Direct attack


______ are the tools of choice for defensive operations

Master streams


When evaluating the ______ Consider the flow capacity of individual hydrants as well as the total flow capacity of the water system

Water supply


The ability to apply water from a distance greater than the height of the building may lead to a _______ for tall buildings that are in danger of collapse

Non attack strategy


The first consideration in placing exterior streams is



The second is the ability to apply water to ______ and to the interior of the building



Is the solid stream, straight stream, or fog stream best for defensive operations? They all have their place, and it is important for the fire officer to know the advantages and disadvantages of all available tools. The ________ Has the greatest reach and penetrating ability and is best suited to situations where the attack is on the main body of the fire in a large structure

Solid stream


The ______Can be gently apply to an exposure, covering a wider area without breaking windows

fog pattern


From a variable stream nozzle or not generally considered equal to solid stream nozzles, but most are capable of penetrating the main body of fire

Straight streams


In an urban setting the ______ Is used to describe a fire that spreads from building to building over a considerable distance, beyond a natural or artificial barrier



Are similar to conflagrations; however, unlike a conflagration, a ______ is confined within a complex or among adjacent buildings

Group fires


Fires spreading from Wildland into an urban area, and destroying large numbers of buildings, are properly defined as conflagrations.

Wildland urban interface


Has historically posed the greatest problem and is most often cited as a conflagration factor

Wood shingle roofing


Understanding the methods of heat transfer is the first step in developing a

Conflagrations strategy


Once the flame font widens, ______ is the primary means of fire extension from building to building and from groups of buildings to other groups of buildings

Radiant heat


Halting or preventing A conflagration Can seriously Challenge any water supply system. The use of water must be prioritized with individual units, realizing the importance of water conservation. In most cases, water being discharge into a flame front is of little value. The top priorities are maintaining the_________

The firebreak at the lines of defense and protecting exposures


If the same offensive attack is not possible and there is little or nothing to be gained by initiating a defensive attack, choose the ______ option.



For older multistory residential and office buildings, using a factor of _____ per story is reasonably accurate

12 ft


Generally, the longer an uncontrolled fire burns, the more hazardous the building becomes. Therefore, the ______ should be assessed not only during initial attack or during a change of command, but also at set times and whenever major tactical objectives are achieved.

Risk versus benefit analysis


When a fire is of such magnitude that the buildings structural support system is threatened, the building should be evacuated and a _____

Defensive operation initiated


When a fire seriously threatens the structural integrity of a building, firefighters should move to the outside of the ______ to avoid life threatening emergency retreats

Collapse zone


Building sometimes collapse within themselves, other times, the walls fall away from the supporting structure as a unit. This type of structural failure results in the collapse zone being equal to the ______

Height of the building plus an allowance for debris to scatter


Using a _____ allows the stream to be used for an attack on the main body of fire, and it can also be repositioned to cover exposures if the apparatus or master stream is properly positioned

Variable stream nozzle


Evacuating people beyond the secondary line of defense requires that the location of the secondary line of defense be known. Actually protecting the secondary line of defense protects the