Flashcards in St Chpt 9 Deck (39):
An ____ is the preferred strategy whenever conditions and resources-permit an interior attack
Offensive fire attack
A ______ limits operations to the exterior, generally resulting in a larger property loss and limiting rescue options
The ______ decision is based on staffing available to conduct an interior attack, water supply, ventilation, and most importantly a risk versus benefit analysis
A ______ is used whenever the risk vs benefit analysis determines that the risk to firefighters lives and safety outweighs any possible benefit that might be achieved through an offensive attack
When the IC initiates a _______, the objective is to save property that has not already been destroyed and/or to protect the environment
Defensive fire attack
Many theorists exist regarding collapse zone distances. Some theorists believe that a building will fall ____ of its height.
Using the 12 ft per story estimate, a five story building would be 60 ft in height, requiring a collapse zone of approx ____.
As compared to straight stream and fog nozzles, generally maintain better stream continuity for long distances, particularly when the stream is operated in opposition to the wind or there is a crosswind
Solid stream nozzles
If a decision is made to position personnel and equipment within the potential collapse zone, evaluate the building to determine the safest possible location. For example positioning companies at the _____ of the building is usually safer than a frontal attack.
Deal with fire extending from one area of a building to another within a structure
Many times in a defensive operation the building of origin is recognized as a total loss, therefore, emphasis is placed on protecting _____.
Increases as the size of the flame font increases
When inadequate resources, collapse probability, or fire volume makes a direct attack on the fire ineffective, applying water on the _______ is the best tactic
The energy levels for radiant heat are inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the heat source and the ______
Wetting the exposure is generally the most effective way to prevent ______
If a _____ fails to control the fire or the effectiveness of a direct attack is questionable for any reason, first cover near by exposures and then direct as much water as possible onto the main body of fire from a safe distance
______ are the tools of choice for defensive operations
When evaluating the ______ Consider the flow capacity of individual hydrants as well as the total flow capacity of the water system
The ability to apply water from a distance greater than the height of the building may lead to a _______ for tall buildings that are in danger of collapse
Non attack strategy
The first consideration in placing exterior streams is
The second is the ability to apply water to ______ and to the interior of the building
Is the solid stream, straight stream, or fog stream best for defensive operations? They all have their place, and it is important for the fire officer to know the advantages and disadvantages of all available tools. The ________ Has the greatest reach and penetrating ability and is best suited to situations where the attack is on the main body of the fire in a large structure
The ______Can be gently apply to an exposure, covering a wider area without breaking windows
From a variable stream nozzle or not generally considered equal to solid stream nozzles, but most are capable of penetrating the main body of fire
In an urban setting the ______ Is used to describe a fire that spreads from building to building over a considerable distance, beyond a natural or artificial barrier
Are similar to conflagrations; however, unlike a conflagration, a ______ is confined within a complex or among adjacent buildings
Fires spreading from Wildland into an urban area, and destroying large numbers of buildings, are properly defined as conflagrations.
Wildland urban interface
Has historically posed the greatest problem and is most often cited as a conflagration factor
Wood shingle roofing
Understanding the methods of heat transfer is the first step in developing a
Once the flame font widens, ______ is the primary means of fire extension from building to building and from groups of buildings to other groups of buildings
Halting or preventing A conflagration Can seriously Challenge any water supply system. The use of water must be prioritized with individual units, realizing the importance of water conservation. In most cases, water being discharge into a flame front is of little value. The top priorities are maintaining the_________
The firebreak at the lines of defense and protecting exposures
If the same offensive attack is not possible and there is little or nothing to be gained by initiating a defensive attack, choose the ______ option.
For older multistory residential and office buildings, using a factor of _____ per story is reasonably accurate
Generally, the longer an uncontrolled fire burns, the more hazardous the building becomes. Therefore, the ______ should be assessed not only during initial attack or during a change of command, but also at set times and whenever major tactical objectives are achieved.
Risk versus benefit analysis
When a fire is of such magnitude that the buildings structural support system is threatened, the building should be evacuated and a _____
Defensive operation initiated
When a fire seriously threatens the structural integrity of a building, firefighters should move to the outside of the ______ to avoid life threatening emergency retreats
Building sometimes collapse within themselves, other times, the walls fall away from the supporting structure as a unit. This type of structural failure results in the collapse zone being equal to the ______
Height of the building plus an allowance for debris to scatter
Using a _____ allows the stream to be used for an attack on the main body of fire, and it can also be repositioned to cover exposures if the apparatus or master stream is properly positioned
Variable stream nozzle