Pump Ops Chpt 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pump Ops Chpt 5 Deck (69):
1

Below 32 degrees water is converted to a solid state of matter called

Ice

2

For fire protection purposes ordinary fresh water is considered to weigh _____ or _____ a gal

62.4 lb/ft or 8.3lb/gal

3

Water may also used to smother fires in combustible liquids whose specific gravity is higher than ____

1

4

In this manual pressure is defined as _________.

Force per unit area

5

Pressure is easily confused with _______. _________ is a simple measure of weight and is expressed in pounds or kilograms

Force

6

The height required for a 1 square inch column of water to produce 1 psi at its base equals 1 foot divided by ________.

0.434 psi/ft or 2.304 feet

7

Therefore a column of water 2.304 feet high exerts pressure of _______ psi at its base.

1

8

In metrics a cube that is 0.1 m x 0.1 m x 0.1 m x holds _____ liter of water.

1

9

The weight of 1 liter of water is ______ kilogram

1

10

One cubic meter of water holds 1000 liters of water and weighs _________ kg

1000

11

The speed at which a fluids travels through a hose or pipe is determined by the pressure upon the fluid as well as The size of the office through which it is flowing. The speed is often called ______

Velocity

12

Fluid pressure is perpendicular to any surface on which it acts

First principle

13

Fluid pressure at a point in fluid at rest is the same intensity in all directions. This principle is used in hydrostatic testing

Second principle

14

Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted equally in all directions

Third principle

15

The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to its depth

Fourth principle

16

The pressure of a liquid in an open vessel is proportional to the density of the liquid

Fifth Principle

17

The pressure of a liquid at the bottom of a vessel is independent of the shape of the vessel.

Sixth principle

18

This pressure is greatest at low altitudes and least at very high altitudes ________ at sea level is 14.7

Atmospheric pressure

19

Any pressure less than atmospheric pressure is called_______, and absolute zero pressure is called a _____.

Vacuum and perfect vacuum

20

In the fire service, _____ refers to the height of a water supply above the discharge orifice

Head

21

To convert head in feet to head pressure, you must divide the number of feet by ______.

2.304

22

The water flow definition of _____ is stored potential energy available to force water through pipes, fittings, hose, and adapters.

Static pressure

23

Is the portion of the total available pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water through pipes, fittings, hoses, or adapters.

Residual pressure

24

While water is flowing from a discharge opening the forward velocity pressure is considered

Flow pressure

25

Use a pitot tube and gauge to measure the forward velocity of the _______.

Flow pressure

26

Refers to the center line of the pump or the bottom of a static water supply source above or below ground level.

Elevation

27

Is the position of an object in relation to sea level

Altitude

28

When a nozzle is above the level of the pump, there is pressure loss. Conversely when a nozzle is below the pump, there is a pressure gain. The pressure losses or gains due to gravity are called ______.

Elevation pressure

29

Above sea level atmospheric pressure decreases approximately _______ for every 1000 feet.

0.5psi

30

The common term for pressure loss due to friction is

Friction loss

31

The friction loss in older hose may be as much as ____ greater than that of new hose

50 percent

32

The rougher the inner surface of the pipe (commonly referred to as the ________), the greater the friction loss will be.

Coefficient of friction

33

If all other conditions are the same friction loss varies directly with the length.

First principle of friction loss

34

When hoses are the same size, friction loss varies approximately with the square of the increase in the velocity of the flow.

Second principle of friction loss

35

For the same discharge, friction loss varies inversely as the fifth power of the diameter of the hose.

Third principle of friction loss

36

For a given velocity, friction loss is approximately the same, regardless of the pressure on the water

Fourth principle of friction loss

37

There are practical limits to the velocity at which a stream can travel. If the velocity is increased beyond this point, friction will become so great that entire system is agitated by resistance. This agitation causes a degree of turbulence known as ______.

Critical velocity

38

Suddenly stopping water moving through a hose or pipe results in an energy surge being transmitted in the opposite direction often many times the original pressure. Each time this occurs there is an amplification of the wave causing pressure to increase. This surge is referred to as ______.

Water hammer

39

Uses one or more pumps that takes water from the primary source and discharges it through the filtration and treatment processes.

Direct pumping system

40

Uses a primary water source located at a higher elevation than the distribution system. The gravity flow from a higher elevation provides the pressure.

Gravity system

41

Most communities use a combination of the direct pumping and gravity systems. In most cases elevated storage tanks supply the gravity flow.

Combination system

42

The ______ of the overall water supply system receives the water from the pumping station and delivers it throughout the area served

Distribution system

43

A fire hydrant that receives water from only one direction is known as a

Dead end hydrant

44

When a fire hydrant receives water from two or more directions, it is said to have a _________

Circulating or a looped line

45

Large pipes with relatively widespread spacing, that convey large quantities of water to various points of the system for the local distribution to smaller mains.

Primary feeders

46

Network of intermediate sized pipes that reinforce the grid within the various loops of the primary feeder system and aid the concentration of the required fire flow at any point

Secondary feeders

47

Grid arrangement of smaller mains serving individual fire hydrants and blocks of consumers

Distributors

48

Is a hollow metal post that is attached to the valve housing. The valve stem inside the post is threaded and has a target that moves as the valve is opened or closed. The words open or shut appear in the window as the valve approaches one position or the other.

Post indicator valve PIV

49

The _______ valve has a yoke on the outside with a threaded stem that controls the gates opening or closing.

OS&Y outside screw and yoke

50

These are the most common type of valves used on most public water distribution systems

Nonindicating valves

51

Is the average amount of water used per day based on the total amount of water used in a water distribution system for over the period of one year

Average daily consumption ADC

52

Is the maximum total amount of water that was used during any 24 hour interval within a 3 year period

Maximum daily consumption MDC

53

Is the maximum amount of water used In a 1 hour interval over the course of a day

Peak hourly consumption PHC

54

At ____, water converted to steam occupies approximately ____ times it's original volume, helping to dissipate heat in a well-vented room. The expansion ration is even greater at higher temperatures.

212F

1700

55

At 212 water converted to steam occupies approximately _____ it’s original volume, helping to dissipate heat in well vented room

1700 times

56

At _____ water is a relatively heavy agent. Accumulations of water within a structure can lead to an increased potential for collapse

8.3 gallons

57

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is ______ which is considered standard atmospheric pressure

14.7 psi

58

The pressure in a system before it flows from a hydrant is considered ____ for fires service purposes

Static

59

The fire service definition of _______ is that part of the total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters

Friction loss

60

When water flows through pipes, it’s movement causes friction and results in a reduction of pressure. There is much less pressure loss in a ________ when fire hydrants are supplied from two or more directions

Water distribution system

61

A distribution system that provides circulating feed from several mains constitutes a

Grid system

62

The function of a ______ in a water distribution system is to provide a means for controlling the flow of water through the distribution piping

Valve

63

One of the most important factors in a water supply system is the water departments ability to promptly operate the _____ during an emergency or breakdown of equipment

Valves

64

These valves are commonly used on private water supply systems

Post indicator valve

65

These are most commonly used on sprinkler systems but may be found in some water distribution system applications

OS&Y valve

66

Control valves in public water distribution systems are generally

Gate valves

67

Gate valves maybe of the ______

Rising stem or non rising stem

68

Frequently friction loss is increased by encrustation of minerals on the interior surfaces of the pipe. Another problem is sedimentation that settles out of the water. Both of these conditions result in a restriction of the pipe size, increased friction loss, and proportionate reduction in the amount of water available from the system. The adverse effects of encrustation and sedimentation can be reduced by

Flushing hydrants periodically

69

Most commonly, private water supply systems receive their water from a

Municipal water supply system