Flashcards in ST Chpt 2 Deck (132):
SOPs and a good size up Are necessary prerequisite in the development of an_________.
Incident action plan
Important information about specific buildings can be obtained and analyzed in advance through________.
________ Our general guidelines to be used at all structure fires or fires in similar occupancies
________ Address any operation that can be handled using a standard approach
________ Should be modified to include tactics related to recent research regarding fire behavior, venting, flow path, and staffing.
_______ Provide a structure for the decision-making process including answering the questions of who makes what decisions, at what level of command and from where?
Water should be applied to a fire as soon as possible from the safest location. This tactic is often referred to as________.
Softening the target
Essentially a statement is made that procedures are to be followed but the firefighters should follow a reasonable course of action when confronted with a situation in which modification of the procedure is appropriate
Reasonable person clause
The ability to save lives and property is directly related to
Using the onboard water supply to attack the fire is sometimes referred to as an
Attack pumper tactic
_________ Is one way to provide a continuous water supply when the water supply is a considerable distance from the fire
If a water shuttle operation is implemented the IC Should establish a
Water supply group
A full load of water could easily overload a tank truck that normally transports products lighter than water. An important safety Consideration is the vehicles_______.
Center of gravity
Frame buildings built prior to 1940 maybe_______.
Balloon frame construction
Where as frame buildings built later will probably be________.
Platform frame construction
If the facility falls under the requirements of___________, then hazardous materials planning is mandated by law.
Title III superfund amendments and reauthorization act SARA
Establishing_______ is step 1 in the size up.
___________ is step 2
The local ________ Decides which properties are required to have lockboxes and selects a standard key lock system that will be used throughout the community
Authority having jurisdictions
A________Open all lockboxes in that community
NFPA 1, fire code, now requires that a ________ be used throughout the jurisdiction.
Standard elevator key
__________Is vital to the safety of firefighters and the efficient delivery of community fire protection
__________ is a time Intensive activity that requires extensive data collection and data entry
Probably the most difficult to construct and most important part of the pre-incident plan is the________.
___________ Include both the narrative and drawings
Formal preincident plans
________ Are the most important part of the pre-incident plan
________ Are best written In outline form with extremely important information highlighted color-coded or otherwise identified to draw attention to critical information
This plan is used when a property has more than three buildings or when it is necessary to show the layout of the premises and the relationship between buildings on the site
Complex pre-incident plan
A property with a substantial risk to life and property should be the subject of a________.
Formal pre-incident plan
The _________ Would include a drawing of the property specific floor layouts and narrative describing important features
Formal pre-incident plan
Marking the exterior of dangers buildings such as painting a large X at the top level of a building that should not be entered because of structural problems would be another form of_______.
A fourth category of preincident planning by occupancy could be described as either a_______ or the _______.
Training issue or the topic of an SOP
To remove water from the upper floors of a building cruise can remove the toilets from the floors creating a ______ drain.
When preparing a pre-incident plan one of the most common errors is_______.
Pre-assigning companies to respond to specific locations
If there is a high life hazard(including firefighter safety issues), A particularly difficult Extinguishment problem, or high value property, then there is a need to prepare a _________.
Properties with ________ Should be the highest priority for planning
HIGH Life hazards
Buildings that present an extraordinary challenge in terms of life safety extinguishment and salvage should be______.
_________ Describe a standardized method addressing predictable operational circumstances
Pre-incident plans are building specific, while ______ are general
Occupancies with ________ Present a hazard to firefighters but could also be preplanned due to the large rate of flow required to extinguish a fire
Long span roofs
A ________ Pre-incident plan maybe enough for buildings that have previously been damaged by fire or weather
A building with compartments requiring more than ______ Standard pre-connected hose lines as calculated by using the volume of the fire compartment divided by 100 should be preplanned
______ is a natural extension of the SOP and preplanning
________ Get the operation off to a predictable start while pre-plans provide specific information about the building in advance of the fire
SOPs and preplans
The initial size up analysis is limited to evaluating_______.
Factors related to_______Are most likely to be critical
_______Actually begins before the incident with the development of SOP’s and preincident planning
Size up continues throughout the incident and should continue through the_______.
Smoke and fire conditions are directly related to occupant survival and firefighter safety and are ________ at a structure fire
A ventilation opening including opening a door to gain access could create a flow path that increases the oxygen concentration resulting in a dramatic increase in visible smoke and flames
Flashover is a critical indicator at a structure fire
However _______ is generally the best way to realistically determine Fire intensity when an interior attack is possible
_______ Generally increase the available oxygen and often result in the rapid increase in fire intensity and size
_________ Involves moving the fire away from occupants and firefighters
Venting for life safety
A common life safety venting tactic included in the SOP‘s for many departments is to remove ______ or ______ at the top of a stairway in a multi story building.
Remove a scuttle or other cover over a built-in opening
The nfpa recommends that each home have an evacuation-plan following the exit drills in the home ______ educational program.
Many public buildings also have ____ where immobile occupants wait for assistance.
Areas of refuge
The _______ Is set up to keep nonresponse people out of the area
The primary firefighter Accountability system is
a formal Accountability system is required by
A team of at least two firefighters must be immediately available to rescue fellow firefighters who need assistance
Rapid intervention crew RIC
Although not required by regulations and standards good practice dictates that at least _______ and _______ be assigned to RIC as soon as possible.
An officer and three firefighters
A collapse zone the height of the structure plus an allowance of debris scatter is recommended. In most cases this translates to a collapse zone that is ______.
One and a half times the height of the building
When confronted with they well-involved fire in a noncombustible structure determining the ________ is a primary factor.
The _______ building, as the name indicates is superior to all other building types in regard to structural stability under fire conditions.
Fire resistive type 1
Most modern buildings with large open areas will have a lightweight _________.
Engineered roof support system
If a ________ is present, especially a ________, it should be highlighted on the preplan narrative and a symbol added to the drawing indicating a _____.
Long span truss roof
_______Have been responsible for many firefighter fatalities
Even if the building does not warrant preincident planning, a ______ should warn responding firefighters of structural damage or hazards such as holes in the floor.
The ________Is the load impose on structural members by the building and permanent attachment
Of special consideration or heavy roof loads such as roof mounted equipment, particularly if the roof is supported by_______.
Unprotected truss construction
Most buildings except for __________ contain multiple concealed spaces.
Type 4 heavy timber
As firefighters make entry they should use a_______ To determine whether the fire has penetrated the ceiling and made its way into the false ceiling area
Thermal imaging camera TIC
Rate of flow formulas are based on the size of the_______
Lightweight structural members and energy efficient windows are considered_________.
The underwriters laboratories study impact of ventilation on fire behavior in legacy and contemporary residential construction indicates that residential fuel loads found today are________.
Higher and burn faster than in the past
In most cases manual fire suppression systems refers to a
However the most common pathway for Smoke is upward; therefore, most smoke damage occurs on the ________.
Fire floor or above
The best way to reduce smoke damage is to_________.
Ventilate The building
____________ Is generally the most important and difficult resource to obtain when initiating an offense of attack
NFPA 1710 establishes a minimum staffing level of _______ Firefighters to safely and efficiently combat a working structure fire in a two-story single-family dwelling with no basement and no threatened exposures
14 or 15
Firefighters should not attempt to disrupt the power supply in large properties with
The size up chronology
Visual observations at the scene
Information gained during continuing operations
As an example, if department SOPs specify that the first arriving pumper should pull past the main entrance to allow room for the first arriving truck company, preconnected hose lines should be specified in locations that permit efficient deployment to the _____
Rear of the apparatus
The most valued fire suppression resource in any community is the
Is a critical part of community fire protection
A well maintained water distribution system with closely spaced fire hydrants and large flow capacity provides the
Ideal water supply
Supplying water from the apparatus _____ is the fastest and least labor intensive
Most residential fires are within the capacity of a _______ and, if properly applied, can be extinguished, or at least controlled, with the water carried on board
1 3/4 inch
Determine flow requirements and the best method to meet the calculated flow during
Preincident plans are a natural extension of
All properties requiring lock boxes according to the local code use the same
Some departments use a ______ to access the apparatus lock box that tracks when the dedicated key box was opened and by whom
Key code system
However if possible, line personnel who are most likely to respond to an incident at the property should conduct the
Preincident plan survey
Keeping preincident plans current is at least as important as creating the initial
A word of caution: the use of onboard computers is the preferred method of storing large numbers of
As an additional precaution, preincident plan information should also be stored onboard fire vehicles as a ____ when the communications network or terminal fails.
When considering new preplan software, it is best to purchase a program that can import and modify
Auto cad drawings
On the other end of the spectrum is a building, where a simple _____ is made about a particular problem, such as holes in the floor due to previous fire
The use of _________ allows much more information to be accessed without cluttering the top layer of the drawing and narrative
Computerized pre incident planning
Plays a major role in determining extinguishment needs
Factors related to life safety are most likely to be critical. These most important factors are known as
Less important factors are categorized as
Occupants inside post ______ compartments have a very low probability of survival
Is the primary life safety tactic and an operational priority
For all these reasons and more, the only way to be sure the building has been evacuated is to conduct a
Many large of life fire reports in places of assembly address _____ as a major problem
Is the ICs most important consideration
It is critical that the IC continually reevaluate the situation in terms of
The size of the area to be searched, smoke conditions, rescue methods available, and the condition of the occupants determine how many crews should be assigned to the
A thorough ______ analysis determines whether the operation will be offensive or defensive
Risk versus benefit analysis
A major risk versus benefit consideration involves evaluating
But be aware that many collapses occur with no perceptible warning, especially in buildings constructed using light weight materials such as
Determining a collapse zone provides a good example of how the same size up factor can be
Primary or secondary
In contrast, it would be a secondary factor for a minor fire in a fire resistive building
The roof covering can be important, particularly if it is combustible such as a
Some departments place a______ directly on the building to indicate structural damage or other structural problems
The fire officer must consider serious ______ as a critical factor when deciding whether to take an offensive or defensive approach
The type of construction will be a major factor in determining the overall
Knowing a buildings ____ is important when developing incident specific tactics
The type of construction and occupancy, both of which can be known before the fire, will be major clues in determining
The _____ determines the effectiveness of ground based fire apparatus
Height of the building
All ____ buildings should be preplanned
Is nearly always a primary factor at a working structure fire
The most important objectives are those related to
Other parts of the fire building or connected structures are categorized as
Property in water path ways below the fire will have a high probability of
When water cannot be directed away from salvageable property, the most common way to protect property from water damage is to place _________ over the exposed contents, staring with property that is in the water pathway and most susceptible to water damage
Covers over the exposed contents
Property that is susceptible to smoke damage on the fire floor and above is most likely to be
Are typically labor intensive
Conversely, _____ require fewer fire fighters operating apparatus and equipment that require large volume water supplies
When all staffing or all apparatus are being used and the incident is not resolved, a _____ is needed