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Flashcards in ST Chpt 2 Deck (132):
1

SOPs and a good size up Are necessary prerequisite in the development of an_________.

Incident action plan

2

Important information about specific buildings can be obtained and analyzed in advance through________.

Pre-incident planning

3

________ Our general guidelines to be used at all structure fires or fires in similar occupancies

SOPs

4

________ Address any operation that can be handled using a standard approach

SOPs

5

________ Should be modified to include tactics related to recent research regarding fire behavior, venting, flow path, and staffing.

SOPs

6

_______ Provide a structure for the decision-making process including answering the questions of who makes what decisions, at what level of command and from where?

SOPs

7

Water should be applied to a fire as soon as possible from the safest location. This tactic is often referred to as________.

Softening the target

8

Essentially a statement is made that procedures are to be followed but the firefighters should follow a reasonable course of action when confronted with a situation in which modification of the procedure is appropriate

Reasonable person clause

9

The ability to save lives and property is directly related to

Response time

10

Using the onboard water supply to attack the fire is sometimes referred to as an

Attack pumper tactic

11

_________ Is one way to provide a continuous water supply when the water supply is a considerable distance from the fire

Relay pumping

12

If a water shuttle operation is implemented the IC Should establish a

Water supply group

13

A full load of water could easily overload a tank truck that normally transports products lighter than water. An important safety Consideration is the vehicles_______.

Center of gravity

14

Frame buildings built prior to 1940 maybe_______.

Balloon frame construction

15

Where as frame buildings built later will probably be________.

Platform frame construction

16

If the facility falls under the requirements of___________, then hazardous materials planning is mandated by law.

Title III superfund amendments and reauthorization act SARA

17

Establishing_______ is step 1 in the size up.

SOPs

18

___________ is step 2

Pre-incident planning

19

The local ________ Decides which properties are required to have lockboxes and selects a standard key lock system that will be used throughout the community

Authority having jurisdictions

20

A________Open all lockboxes in that community

Dedicated key

21

NFPA 1, fire code, now requires that a ________ be used throughout the jurisdiction.

Standard elevator key

22

__________Is vital to the safety of firefighters and the efficient delivery of community fire protection

Pre-incident planning

23

__________ is a time Intensive activity that requires extensive data collection and data entry

Preincident planning

24

Probably the most difficult to construct and most important part of the pre-incident plan is the________.

drawings

25

___________ Include both the narrative and drawings

Formal preincident plans

26

________ Are the most important part of the pre-incident plan

Drawings

27

________ Are best written In outline form with extremely important information highlighted color-coded or otherwise identified to draw attention to critical information

Narratives

28

This plan is used when a property has more than three buildings or when it is necessary to show the layout of the premises and the relationship between buildings on the site

Complex pre-incident plan

29

A property with a substantial risk to life and property should be the subject of a________.

Formal pre-incident plan

30

The _________ Would include a drawing of the property specific floor layouts and narrative describing important features

Formal pre-incident plan

31

Marking the exterior of dangers buildings such as painting a large X at the top level of a building that should not be entered because of structural problems would be another form of_______.

Notation pre-plan

32

A fourth category of preincident planning by occupancy could be described as either a_______ or the _______.

Training issue or the topic of an SOP

33

To remove water from the upper floors of a building cruise can remove the toilets from the floors creating a ______ drain.

4 in

34

When preparing a pre-incident plan one of the most common errors is_______.

Pre-assigning companies to respond to specific locations

35

If there is a high life hazard(including firefighter safety issues), A particularly difficult Extinguishment problem, or high value property, then there is a need to prepare a _________.

Pre-incident plan

36

Properties with ________ Should be the highest priority for planning

HIGH Life hazards

37

Buildings that present an extraordinary challenge in terms of life safety extinguishment and salvage should be______.

Preplanned

38

_________ Describe a standardized method addressing predictable operational circumstances

SOPs

39

Pre-incident plans are building specific, while ______ are general

SOPs

40

Occupancies with ________ Present a hazard to firefighters but could also be preplanned due to the large rate of flow required to extinguish a fire

Long span roofs

41

A ________ Pre-incident plan maybe enough for buildings that have previously been damaged by fire or weather

Notation type

42

A building with compartments requiring more than ______ Standard pre-connected hose lines as calculated by using the volume of the fire compartment divided by 100 should be preplanned

Two

43

______ is a natural extension of the SOP and preplanning

Size up

44

________ Get the operation off to a predictable start while pre-plans provide specific information about the building in advance of the fire

SOPs and preplans

45

The initial size up analysis is limited to evaluating_______.

Primary factors

46

Factors related to_______Are most likely to be critical

Life safety

47

_______Actually begins before the incident with the development of SOP’s and preincident planning

Size up

48

Size up continues throughout the incident and should continue through the_______.

Overhaul phase

49

Smoke and fire conditions are directly related to occupant survival and firefighter safety and are ________ at a structure fire

Primary factors

50

A ventilation opening including opening a door to gain access could create a flow path that increases the oxygen concentration resulting in a dramatic increase in visible smoke and flames

Flashover is a critical indicator at a structure fire

51

However _______ is generally the best way to realistically determine Fire intensity when an interior attack is possible

Interior reconnaissance

52

_______ Generally increase the available oxygen and often result in the rapid increase in fire intensity and size

Vent openings

53

_________ Involves moving the fire away from occupants and firefighters

Venting for life safety

54

A common life safety venting tactic included in the SOP‘s for many departments is to remove ______ or ______ at the top of a stairway in a multi story building.

Remove a scuttle or other cover over a built-in opening

55

The nfpa recommends that each home have an evacuation-plan following the exit drills in the home ______ educational program.

EDITH

56

Many public buildings also have ____ where immobile occupants wait for assistance.

Areas of refuge

57

The _______ Is set up to keep nonresponse people out of the area

Fire perimeter

58

The primary firefighter Accountability system is

Nims

59

a formal Accountability system is required by

NFPA 1500

60

A team of at least two firefighters must be immediately available to rescue fellow firefighters who need assistance

Rapid intervention crew RIC

61

Although not required by regulations and standards good practice dictates that at least _______ and _______ be assigned to RIC as soon as possible.

An officer and three firefighters

62

A collapse zone the height of the structure plus an allowance of debris scatter is recommended. In most cases this translates to a collapse zone that is ______.

One and a half times the height of the building

63

When confronted with they well-involved fire in a noncombustible structure determining the ________ is a primary factor.

Collapse zone

64

The _______ building, as the name indicates is superior to all other building types in regard to structural stability under fire conditions.

Fire resistive type 1

65

Most modern buildings with large open areas will have a lightweight _________.

Engineered roof support system

66

If a ________ is present, especially a ________, it should be highlighted on the preplan narrative and a symbol added to the drawing indicating a _____.

Truss roof

Long span truss roof

Truss roof

67

_______Have been responsible for many firefighter fatalities

Truss roofs

68

Even if the building does not warrant preincident planning, a ______ should warn responding firefighters of structural damage or hazards such as holes in the floor.

A notation

69

The ________Is the load impose on structural members by the building and permanent attachment

Dead load

70

Of special consideration or heavy roof loads such as roof mounted equipment, particularly if the roof is supported by_______.

Unprotected truss construction

71

Most buildings except for __________ contain multiple concealed spaces.

Type 4 heavy timber

72

As firefighters make entry they should use a_______ To determine whether the fire has penetrated the ceiling and made its way into the false ceiling area

Thermal imaging camera TIC

73

Rate of flow formulas are based on the size of the_______

Fire compartment

74

Lightweight structural members and energy efficient windows are considered_________.

Green

75

The underwriters laboratories study impact of ventilation on fire behavior in legacy and contemporary residential construction indicates that residential fuel loads found today are________.

Higher and burn faster than in the past

76

In most cases manual fire suppression systems refers to a

Standpipe system

77

However the most common pathway for Smoke is upward; therefore, most smoke damage occurs on the ________.

Fire floor or above

78

The best way to reduce smoke damage is to_________.

Ventilate The building

79

____________ Is generally the most important and difficult resource to obtain when initiating an offense of attack

Staffing

80

NFPA 1710 establishes a minimum staffing level of _______ Firefighters to safely and efficiently combat a working structure fire in a two-story single-family dwelling with no basement and no threatened exposures

14 or 15

81

Firefighters should not attempt to disrupt the power supply in large properties with

High-voltage service

82

The size up chronology

SOPs
Preincednt plans
Shift/day/time
Alarm route
En route
Visual observations at the scene
Information gained during continuing operations
Overhaul

83

As an example, if department SOPs specify that the first arriving pumper should pull past the main entrance to allow room for the first arriving truck company, preconnected hose lines should be specified in locations that permit efficient deployment to the _____

Rear of the apparatus

84

The most valued fire suppression resource in any community is the

Firefighter

85

Is a critical part of community fire protection

Water supply

86

A well maintained water distribution system with closely spaced fire hydrants and large flow capacity provides the

Ideal water supply

87

Supplying water from the apparatus _____ is the fastest and least labor intensive

Apparatus tank

88

Most residential fires are within the capacity of a _______ and, if properly applied, can be extinguished, or at least controlled, with the water carried on board

1 3/4 inch

89

Determine flow requirements and the best method to meet the calculated flow during

Preincident planning

90

Preincident plans are a natural extension of

SOPs

91

All properties requiring lock boxes according to the local code use the same

Dedicated key

92

Some departments use a ______ to access the apparatus lock box that tracks when the dedicated key box was opened and by whom

Key code system

93

However if possible, line personnel who are most likely to respond to an incident at the property should conduct the

Preincident plan survey

94

Keeping preincident plans current is at least as important as creating the initial

Preincident plan

95

A word of caution: the use of onboard computers is the preferred method of storing large numbers of

Preincident plans

96

As an additional precaution, preincident plan information should also be stored onboard fire vehicles as a ____ when the communications network or terminal fails.

Back up

97

When considering new preplan software, it is best to purchase a program that can import and modify

Auto cad drawings

98

On the other end of the spectrum is a building, where a simple _____ is made about a particular problem, such as holes in the floor due to previous fire

Notation

99

The use of _________ allows much more information to be accessed without cluttering the top layer of the drawing and narrative

Computerized pre incident planning

100

Plays a major role in determining extinguishment needs

Compartmentation

101

Factors related to life safety are most likely to be critical. These most important factors are known as

Primary factors

102

Less important factors are categorized as

Secondary factors

103

Occupants inside post ______ compartments have a very low probability of survival

Flashover

104

Is the primary life safety tactic and an operational priority

Extinguishment

105

For all these reasons and more, the only way to be sure the building has been evacuated is to conduct a

Primary search

106

Many large of life fire reports in places of assembly address _____ as a major problem

Unfamiliarity

107

Is the ICs most important consideration

Safety

108

It is critical that the IC continually reevaluate the situation in terms of

Risk management

109

The size of the area to be searched, smoke conditions, rescue methods available, and the condition of the occupants determine how many crews should be assigned to the

Primary search

110

A thorough ______ analysis determines whether the operation will be offensive or defensive

Risk versus benefit analysis

111

A major risk versus benefit consideration involves evaluating

Structural conditions

112

But be aware that many collapses occur with no perceptible warning, especially in buildings constructed using light weight materials such as

Trusses

113

Determining a collapse zone provides a good example of how the same size up factor can be

Primary or secondary

114

In contrast, it would be a secondary factor for a minor fire in a fire resistive building

Collapse zone

115

The roof covering can be important, particularly if it is combustible such as a

Wood shingle

116

Some departments place a______ directly on the building to indicate structural damage or other structural problems

Placard

117

The fire officer must consider serious ______ as a critical factor when deciding whether to take an offensive or defensive approach

Prefire damage

118

The type of construction will be a major factor in determining the overall

Dead load

119

Knowing a buildings ____ is important when developing incident specific tactics

Live load

120

The type of construction and occupancy, both of which can be known before the fire, will be major clues in determining

Extension probability

121

The _____ determines the effectiveness of ground based fire apparatus

Height of the building

122

All ____ buildings should be preplanned

High rise

123

Is nearly always a primary factor at a working structure fire

Extinguishment

124

The most important objectives are those related to

Life safety

125

Other parts of the fire building or connected structures are categorized as

Internal exposures

126

Property in water path ways below the fire will have a high probability of

Water damage

127

When water cannot be directed away from salvageable property, the most common way to protect property from water damage is to place _________ over the exposed contents, staring with property that is in the water pathway and most susceptible to water damage

Covers over the exposed contents

128

Property that is susceptible to smoke damage on the fire floor and above is most likely to be

Damaged

129

Are typically labor intensive

Offensive operations

130

Conversely, _____ require fewer fire fighters operating apparatus and equipment that require large volume water supplies

Defensive operations

131

When all staffing or all apparatus are being used and the incident is not resolved, a _____ is needed

Tactical reserve

132

When confronted with a working fire, it is good practice to maintain a _____ in staging, as forces can be rapidly deployed from a staging area

Tactical reserve