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Flashcards in St Chpt 12 Deck (86):
1

The basic tactics and strategic objectives used in high-rise fire fighting are essentially the same as those that apply to any other structure fire, but with special considerations because of the_____

Height of the building

2

Represent an extraordinary challenge to fire departments and are some of the most challenging incidents a fire department encounters

High-rise fire

3

High-rise buildings can hold thousands of people well above the reach of fire department aerial devices, and the chance of rescuing victims from the exterior is near _____ once the fire is above the operational reach of ladders for elevated platforms

Zero

4

Can be as simple as testing a single function such as the ability to apply the national incident management system (nims) or tabletop exercise using scenarios such as the RGB scenario presented in the challenging questions and activities at the end of this chapter

Training

5

Fire departments tend to think of a high rise building as being _______ of the aerial fire equipment available to them

Beyond the reach

6

The risk to firefighters and occupants increases in proportion to the height of the building and the ______

height of the fire above grade level

7

A responsibility of _______ is to control, operate, and account for all elevators

Lobby control

8

Elevators are equipped with _____ to prevent them from falling

Redundant safety systems

9

Maintenance and security people should never be taken into the elevator until it had been verified that the elevator is

completely safe

10

The first rule of elevator safety is to avoid the use of ______ unless they will substantially improve operations

Elevators

11

When there is a fire separation between the elevators end the fire area, it may be possible to safely use the elevators in another_______ and then travel horizontally to the fire

Building zone

12

Large high rise buildings, especially hospitals, often have ______

Building zones

13

Create a horizontal barrier to smoke and heat from the fire

Fire walls and fire doors

14

Department SOPs should state that the elevator should be taken _____ or more below the fire, and then firefighters should walk up the stairways to the fire floor

Two floors

15

Are usually less safe than passenger elevators, but they may be suitable for sending equipment without placing firefighters in the elevator car

Freight elevators

16

When ascending in an elevator, it is good practice to stop periodically every _______ to check for smoke

Five floors

17

It is further recommended that firefighters stop the elevators________ below the fire floor, step out into the hallway, and check the general floor Arrangement to get a feel for the building layout

Three or more floors

18

Moving equipment via a stairway relay function was formally named stairway support but is now properly termed

Ground support

19

Is a high-rise support unit used to move supplies to the interior staging area when using elevators is deemed to be unsafe

Ground support

20

Firefighters assigned to ______ ascend two stories with air cylinders and other equipment, where the next firefighter picks up the equipment and relays it up two additional floors.

Ground support

21

Should be one of the first assignments given when the fire is on the upper floors in a building without elevator service

Ground support

22

A simple marking system involves placing a chalk mark ____ on doors to rooms that have been searched and/or indicating that the whole floor has been searched by marking hallways doors or walls opposite the elevator

X

23

Some departments use a piece of ____ that cover the doorknob and lock to prevent the door from relocking

Rubber with two holes

24

A ____ tactic places a great burden on the IC, as a successful outcome depends on the fire being promptly extinguished

Defend in place

25

The ____ uses recorded messages to notify occupants of a fire and provides specific directions for reaching places of safe refuge within the building

EVACS

26

Maybe the best way to reduce stairway congestion

Sequential evacuation

27

Reliance on the ______ should be limited to compartmentalized buildings with full sprinkler systems

EVACS

28

Above the ___ floor, most exterior defensive fire control tools are no longer effective

8th floor

29

Elevated streams can sometimes reach the fire floor, but the angle of deflection inside the window diminishes with each floor above the maximum______.

Height of the appliance

30

to improve fire stream penetration, it is necessary to move the nozzle farther from the building, thus ______

Reducing the angle of deflection

31

In fact the buildings ____ are the best means of egress, even when floors are within the reach of aerials

Stairways

32

For these reasons, it is extremely important that fire forces prevent fire extension into the ________because _____ are the safest and most effective egress routes

Stairways

33

Generally, the pressure at the standpipe discharge will be lower than the pump discharge pressure used to supply hose streams connected directly to a pumper. Departments compensate for the lower pressure by using ______ or _______

Smooth bore or low pressure nozzles

34

Although ceiling height of individual floors will vary in high rise buildings, a fair estimate is allowing ____ for the first floor and ___ for each additional floor

20 ft

10 ft

35

The loss of pressure due to gravity is ______

0.434 psi

36

If provisions are not made to provide an external backup supply and the internal pumps fail, the only protection will be ___

The fire resistive nature of the structure (fire enclosures)

37

For supplying the standpipe and reservoirs in case of breakdown, developed in cooperation with building management, could prevent a disaster

Contingency plans

38

These _____ should be included in the preincdent plan

Contingency plans

39

Most newer high rise buildings are equipped with a ______, which is usually near the lobby.

Command center

40

In many new style high rise buildings, where core construction methods are used, fire attack and evacuation tactics are further complicated. In these buildings, ________ are usually located in the center of the building

Stairways

41

Some core construction methods move the core away from the center of the building, which is sometimes referred to as ______

Side core construction

42

Are built as a separate structure, thus reducing the possibility of smoke entering the stairs.

Smoke proof towers

43

Unless there is compelling reason to use another stairway, the ______ or the pressurized stairway should be the stairway of choice for occupant evacuation

Smoke proof tower

44

Matching the occupancy classification to time factors generally gives the IC a good idea of the______

Life hazard potential

45

As a rule of thumb, the average office building has one person for every _____

100 ft

46

The Vertical airflow are caused by temperature differences within and outside the building

Stack effect

47

The colder it is outside and the warmer it is inside, the greater the positive

Stack effect

48

Conversely, the _____ can be negative downward on a warm day within an air conditioned building

Stack effect

49

At the _____ forces are neutral air is not moving in or out

NPP

50

Wind passing over a roof opening has a pulling or

Venturi effect

51

In the case of residential and health care occupancies, there will be at least one additional _____ in the hall way before reaching the stairway

Fire door

52

Effective ____ can clear stairways during a high rise fire in two ways

PPV

53

The primary rescue tactic in a high rise building is a well placed

Offensive attack

54

Suspended ceilings are common concealed spaces and a likely place for a _____ fire

Wrap around fire

55

The attack line is used as the lifeline to _____

Safety

56

The people on the fire floor and the floor immediately above are in the _____ and should be among the first groups evacuated

Greatest danger

57

A stairway with a standpipe outlets is the preferred fire ______

Operations stairway

58

Ventilation and control of the HVAC system should be done by using ____

Reversible methods

59

All floors above the fire are ____

Exposures

60

In modern buildings with ____, fire can extend upward, inside the building, near the exterior wall.

Curtain walls

61

Fires can extend up the exterior of the building via auto exposure by _____ from floor to floor

Lapping

62

However, the greatest property conservation exposure is often _____ as water flows through curtain walls, electrical fixtures, and other openings, damaging valuable property beneath the fire.

Downward

63

The level where the fire occurs has the greatest impact on ____, especially when elevators are not available

Lead time

64

A ____ should be established to keep civilians out of danger and to provide a safe working area for firefighters outside the building

Perimeter

65

If there is danger from falling glass, a _____ perimeter should be enforced around the building

200 ft

66

Opening windows by pulling the glass ____ greatly increases safety at high rise structures

Inward

67

Is the most frequently cited problem during major emergency operations

Communications

68

______ are abundant in most high rise buildings consider using them as a means of emergency communications

Hardwired telephones

69

A good ____ will include sections to record the fire location and the location of companies at the incident scene

Tactical worksheet

70

The term ___ is used by wildland fire fighters to identify a location housing reserve equipment and personnel.

Base

71

The ____ for high rise fires is a location where support equipment and personnel are kept on the exterior of the building

Base

72

Depending on interior conditions and the location of the fire, an exterior staging area maybe establish near the _____

Fire perimeter

73

This area is normally two or more floors below the fire

Interior staging area

74

To avoid the confusion of having a different name for the exterior staging area, the interior staging area could be identified as interior staging or as the

Resource area

75

The supervisor in charge of the staging area or an assistant can act as the _____ for crews that are working out of the staging area

Accountability officer

76

Any time an extended interior attack is in progress on an upper floor of a building where firefighters expend more than one tank of air ______

Interior staging and rehabilitation may be a good idea

77

Controlling the elevators and stairways is the only way to effectively gain access to the upper floors of a high rise building. Many departments SOPs assign these initial lobby control tasks to a member of the first arriving ______

First arriving Truck company

78

Most codes define the high rise building in terms of

Height and stories

79

Once firefighters are operating above the reach of aerial devices, the only viable means of egress is the

Interior stairs

80

Modern high rise building elevators have fire department controls. When the alarm system is activated elevators return to the ground floor and remain there ________ for fire department use.

Locked out

81

A critical variable in high rise fire operations is the availability of reliable

Elevators

82

The fire officer must always conduct a careful _______ before placing firefighters in an elevator

Risk versus benefit

83

The easiest and most quickest way to move cylinders, nozzles, hose, first aid supplies, forcible entry tools, and other materials to the interior staging area in a high rise building is using the

Elevator

84

Moving equipment up through the building when the elevators are out of service is a mammoth undertaking, ______ provides a reasonable but slower alternative to using elevators

Ground support

85

A decision for _______ can be made in advance of a fire and incorporated into the alarm system

Partial or sequential evacuation

86

Assigning fire fighters to clear the attack stairwell from top to bottom assures that occupants will use the __________ and will not hinder fire operations

Safest stairway for egress