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Flashcards in 9/28 Deck (65):
1

what can be overcome by high ate receptive nerve stimulation causing compound muscle fasciculation

botulin toxin

2

what is a drug that blocks the action of AcH when the vagus nerve si stimulated, causing bronchial dilation

ipratropium

3

what drug enhance the dilation effects seen in beta 2 agonist

ipratropium

4

what drug blocks the parasympathetic stimulation of tracheobronchial submucosal gland stimulation n the lungs

ipratropium

5

what are the preferred drugs for the prophylaxis of bronchial asthma

inhaled glucocorticoids like Flunisolide

6

how does theophylline work

blocks phosphodiesterase activity causing vasodilation by increasing cAMP

7

what disease has a decreases in ADAMTS13 which leads to large vWF multimuers that cause crovascualr plateltlt rich thrombi

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purport

8

what does TTP result in

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia

9

direct and consensual light reflex comes from what part of the brain stem

midbrain ( cranial nerve 3 is there)

10

when light comes into the retina and is transmitted to the pretectal nucleus it is relayed to the bilaterally so the both eyes will read with what uncles

Edinger-Westphal nuclei

11

what cranial nerves are in the medulla

9 and 10

12

what is Gertsman syndrome

lesion of the left parietal area of the brain which caused
- right left confusion
- agraphia (disorder of writing and spelling)
- acalculia

13

what area of the brian controls horizontal gaze ( oculocephalic gaze)

pons

14

pinpoint pupils means the what brian structure is damage due to loss of descending sympathetic tracts

pons

15

how does the killed flu vaccine work

by producing antibody to hemagglutinin so that it cannot bind to the host cell and enter. it stops entering into the host cell

16

what kind of vaccine stimulates the MHC class and can generate CD 8 cells

live vaccine

17

what is the neuroamindias blocker that stops the release of irons

oseltamivir

18

a seizure that last more then 5 minuets or a series of seizures that happen without the gain of conciseness is known as

status epilepticus

19

what is the initial treatment for status epileptics

lorazepam and phenytoin

20

how does phenytoin work

it reduces the ability of sodium channels to recover m inactivation (anticonvulsant)

21

what two antisezuire drugs block sodium channels

phenytoin and carbamezepine

22

hat antisezuire drug blocks sodium channels and increases GABA levels

valproic acid

23

hat two drugs that are for seizures increase the action of GABA

benzos and phenobarbital

24

what antiseziure drug modulates GABA and Glutamate release

levetiracetam

25

what antisezuire drug blocks t type thalamic calcium channels

ethosuximide

26

what drug is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase that is responsible for the break down of GABA in the CNS

Vigabatrin

27

what is the cause of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

a mutation in the PIGA gene that cause a deficiency of GPI anchor, CD55 (decay accelerating factor) and CD 59 (MAC inhibitor) which inhibit complement from binding to RBC

28

what is a main cytokine that is produced in giant cell arteriritis

IL-6 (inflammation)

29

what is the inflammatory infiltrate in giant cell arteritis mainly composed of

CD4 cells and Macrophages

30

tocilizumab is what

monoclonal antibody against IL-6, treats giant cell arteritis

31

what is the mechanism behind hypoxic vasoconstriction in the lungs

there is an increase in pulmonary artery systolic calcium secondary to hypoxia induced modulation of K+ channels

32

when the secretory phase happen in the menstrual cycle

between ovulation and menses (day 15-28)

33

when does the proliferative stage of the menstrual cycle occur

in the beginning day 1-14 ( begins with the first say of menses and ends with ovulation)

34

linitus plastics " leather bottle stomach" is caused by

signet ring gastric adenocarcinoma

35

what is the underlying mechanism for Zener Diverticulum

cricothyroid muscle dysfunction

36

PDA is best heard at what heart sound

S2

37

what is the reason there are fluctuation in symptoms of parkinson patients on levodopa

progressive neruodegeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway

38

capsaicin causes a decrease in what

substance P (pain)

39

what is the most common benign liver tumor

cavernous hemangioma

40

what kind of liver cancer can regress with the termination of OCP

Hepatic Adenoma

41

what should you avoid doing to a cavernous hemangioma in the liver

biopsy because it can cause fatal hemorrhage

42

what converts urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia, causing an increase in pH

urease ( this is how H. Pylori lives in the acidic stomach)

43

what are the cells that shigella enters to cause shigellosis

the microfold (M cells) in ill peyers patches through endocytosis

44

history of thrombosis
spontaneous abortion
anticardiolipin AB
lupus anticoagulant

antiphospholipid syndrome

45

nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis is most commonly associated with what

cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders like lupus

46

the ventral body of the pancreas forms what

ucinate prices and the main pancreatic duct

47

what is the triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus

gait ataxia
urinary incontinence
dementia

48

what inhibits the sacral micturition center

cerebral cortex

49

what relaxes the external sphincter when you are about to pee

pontine reticular formation

50

enlargement of the ventricles because there is decreased absorption of the CSF in the brian is?

normal pressure hydrocephalus

51

how does normal pressure hydrocephalus cause urge incontinnce

because there is no inhibition of peeing because of the lack of cerebral cortical fibers due to the increased ventricles with CSF. so the bladder gets full without the patient feeling like the bladder is full and it reflexively empties

52

egg shell calcifications of the hillier nodes and nodular densities are seen in

silicosis

53

pleural thickening, calcified plaques and pleural effusion are seen in

asbestosis

54

oligoclonal bands of IgG is seen in

MS

55

how does atherosclerosis begin

with endothelial cell injury

56

chronic lymphedema predisposes people to what problem

angiosarcoma

57

what is Stewart Treves Syndrome

it is when chronic lymphedema predisposes you to cutaneous angiosarcoma

58

dilation of the left ventricle when there is increased preload can result in what kind of murmur

mitral regurgitation

59

first line treatment for generalized anxiety disorder

cognitive therapy and then SSRI and SNRI

60

citalopram is what kind of medication

SSRI

61

what is bupropion

it is a NE and D re-uptake inhibitor used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and smoking cessation

62

treatment for social anxiety disorder

propranolol

63

what is the prophylaxis given to people who have been around meningococcal disease

rifampin

64

what drug treats ach activity in the gut causing nausea and vomiting

scopolamine and hoyscyamine

65

what antibody most stimulates the complement cascade

IgM because it is a pentamer