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Flashcards in Random Questions Deck (68):
1

most common cause of chronic pancreatitis

ethanol abuse

2

low HB and high MCV

macrocytic anemia

3

what is the single carbon donor that is required for the synthesis of pyrimidines and purines (thymidine) bases incorporated into DNA and without it megaloblastosis will occue

folic acid

4

why is pancreatic insufficiency associated with B12 defficiency

because B 12 needs to pancreas so that it can cleave R factor so that B12 can bind to intrinsic factor and be absorbed

5

what vitamin catalyzes the transaminase reactions by acting as a carrier of amino groups

vitamine b6 (pyridoxine)

6

what are the water shed areas in the brain

where the ACA and MCA meet and where the PCA and MCA meet

7

how do cortical watershed infarcts usually appear?

like bilateral wedge shaped strips of necrosis that are parallel and adjacent to the longitudinal issue

8

these aneurysms usually cause cerebral hemorrhage when they rupture and involve deep brain structures like the basal ganglia and thalamus, what are they called

Charcot-Bouchard Aneurysm

9

lacunar infarcts that occur in the basal ganglia, internal capsule, pons and thalamus are due to what

hypertensive arteriolar sclerosis

10

what kind of aneurysm rupture usually results in subarachnoid hemorrhage

saccular aneurysm

11

if there is alcohol abuse what will be elevated AST or ALT

AST (Think SHOTS SHOTS SHOTSS!!)

12

what is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis

gallstones

13

why is pancreatitis associated with low levels of calcium in the serum

because the pancreatitis spreads into the retroperitoneal fat, omentum and mesentery and then calcium form your system joins it and causes sopinification

14

what is the second most common cause of pancreatitis

alcohol abuse

15

what lung tumor is associated with producing ACTH or vasopressin

small cell lung cancer

16

what lung cancer is associated with producing PTHrP and hypercalcemia

squamous cell cancer of the lung

17

how to differentiate between ectopic production of ACTH like in small cell lung cancer and pituitary production of ACTH

pituitary would respond to corticosteroid administration by decreasing ACTH release due to negative feedback, while the ectopic form would not decrease with administration

18

wat is another name for small cell lung cancer

oat cell lung cancer

19

an upper motor neuron lesion will elicit what on a babinski test

dorsiflexion of the toes

20

spasticity, hyperreflecia, muscle paralysis and weakness are caused by what kind of brain lesion

upper motor neuron lesion (aka pyramidal signs)

21

lower motor neuron lesions cause what three things

muscle atrophy, muscle fasciculation and loss of tendon reflexes

22

what is the positive straight leg test

this test for sciatic nerve (l4-S3) root irritation, the patient lays supine and the leg is lifted and held straight it means that there is probably an intervertebral disc herniation causing sciatica

23

what is the triad for McCune-Albright Syndrome

1. endocrine problems (hyperthyroid)
- precocious puberty (age 7)
2. cafe-au-alit spots
3. fibrous dysplasia (osteolytic lesions that appear on the hip and pelvis bone)

24

persistant G protéine stimulation of melanocytes results in?

cafe-au-lait-macules

25

what are the first sign of McCune Albright Syndrome

cafe au last spots "Coast of Maine Border"

26

what is the main problem in McCune Albright Syndrome

mutation in the GNAS gene in embryogenesis that makes it so that G protein is ALWYAS stimulates

27

what is the lysosomal disease in A. Jews that results in diffuse painful lytic bone lesions and delayed puberty and growth

Gaucher Disease

28

what is the disease of young children that results in isolated idiopathic osteonecrosis of the hip

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

29

ischemic injury usually affects what part of the kidney and why t

the medulla because even under normal conditions this is the area that gets the least amount of blood

30

what are the two parts of the nephron that are susceptible to hypoxia

PCT and thick ascending limb

31

what kindey problem can be caused by surgery, hypovolemic shock or cariogenic shock usually in patients who are in the hospital

acute tubular necrosis

32

what are the three acute clinical features of rheumatic fever

migratory arthralgia (usually first in l. extremities)
pancarditis
sydenham chorea

33

acute morbidity in patients with rheumatic fever is usually due to?

pancarditis (inflammation of the endocardium, pericardium and epicardium)

34

what is the most common cause of septic arthritis and infects inly one joint

S Aureus

35

what does septic shock mean

that there is end stage organ damage because there is poor perfusion due to overwhelming inflammation response to infection

36

what is the initial test for subarachnoid hemorrhage and should be done within the first 24 hours

CT without contrast

37

what will be found in the LP of someone with a subarachnoid hemorrahage

xanthochromia (yellow discoloration due to bilirubin and means that there is bleeding)

38

deposits of what are seen in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes

amylin

39

HLA Dq and DR are the most important determinants of what disease

diabetes type 1

40

burr cells and helmet cells are consistent with what kind of hemolysis

traumatic hemolysis (prosthetic valve or microangiopathic hemolytic anemia)

41

what kind of cells are characteristic for thalasemias

target cells

42

which brain tumor commonly crosses the midlien

GBM

43

pseudopalisading necrosis is what? and what is it seen in

seen in GBM and this is when there is necrosis that is surrounded by tumor cells (blue dots)

44

late APC genen mutation and early p53 mutation in people with colorectal cancer means that they have what underlying condition

ulcerative colitis, pan colitis or crohns disease

45

what usually causes the left ventricular outflow obstruction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

anterior leaflet of the mitral valve moving towards the hypertrophied septum, closing of the outflow of the LV into the aorta

46

what cell cannot use ketones for energy and why

RBC, because they don't have a mitochondria to turn the ketones into ACOA

47

what implies alveolar ventilation

hypcapneia

48

what are three things that are consistent with alveolar hyperventilation

dyspnea
hypocapniea
hypoxemia

49

what is the name for a primary gastric tumor that metates to the ovaries?

Kruckenberg Tumor

50

signet cells with displaced nucleus due to large amounts of mucous in them is a hallmark sign for what condition

Kruckenberg Tumor

51

Reed sternerg cells

Hodgkin lymphoma

52

name the two promotor regions in DNA

CAAT and TATA

53

coding region of DNA

Exon

54

non coding region of DNA

intron

55

when RNA polymerase II bind to promotor region what happens

transcription begins

56

what is the foramen that connects the lateral and third ventricles

monroe

57

what spereates the 3rd and lateral ventricles from the fourth?

cerebral aqueduct

58

dilated ventricles, normal ICP, cerebral atrophy

hydrocephalus ex vacuo

59

normal ICP, enlarged ventricles, adults

normal pressure hydrocephalus

60

global ventricular dilation and increased ICP

communicating hydrocephalus

61

methylation of the amino glycoside binding portion of the 30s ribsomone does what

it doesn't allow amino glycoside to bind to this area and halt protein synthesis, so this bacteria that does this is resistant to this drug

62

BK virus is a DNA polymavirus that is associated with what two things

nerphropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis in immunocompromised people

63

internal hemorrhoids drain into which veins

middle and superior rectal which drain into inferior iliac and inferior mesenteric vein

64

external hemorrhoids drain into which veins

inferior rectal vein and then into inferior pudendal vein

65

why is fructose the fastest in metabolism?

because it is the only one that bypasses Phosphofrucktokinase-1

66

what is an early sign of GVHD

maculopapular rash that is on the palm and soles

67

what inhibits cholesterol absorbtion from the gi

ezetimbe

68

what inhibits 3' to 5' phosphodiesterase bond formation in HIV

Zidovudine (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)