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Flashcards in NEURO Deck (102):
1

familial ALZ is associated with what

presenilin 1 and 2 mutations
`

2

degenerative disease of the frontal and temporal cortex that has round tau protein

Pick Disease

3

hallucinations, parkinsonian features and dementia is what

Ley body dementia

4

urinary incontinece
gait instability
dementia

wet wacky and wobbly

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

5

CAG repeat

Huntington's

6

treatment for normal pressure hydrocephalus

ventriculoperitoneal shunting

7

spike wave complexes on ECG signifies

Creuz Feld Jacob Disease

8

a-synuclein is another name for what

Lewy Bodies (Parkinsons)

9

pronounced frontotemporal brain atrophy with changes in personality and behavior. The patient also has abnormal speech

Pick Disease

10

Silver stain that shows round cytoplasmic inclusions with aggregates of tau protein in frontotemporal lobes

Pick Disease

11

APP processing by beta and gamma secretes pathway produces what

beta amyloid

12

name of ad cow disease

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

13

cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes describes what pathology

progressive multifocal leukoencphalopathy

14

patches of white matter destruction are characteristic of what

multiple sclerosis

15

acute and painless vision loss in one eye is characteristic of what

central retinal artery occlusions

16

what is Amaurosis Fugax

painless, transient, vision loss in one eye that is caused by a small embolus to the ophthalmic artery ( only last a few seconds)

17

blurry vision, black spots, floaters and decreased peripheral vision are all seen in what pathology

diabetic retinpoathy

18

how can patients with long standing dialysis get carpal tunnel

because of the deposition of B2 micro globulin in the carpal tunnel

19

endomysial inflammatory infiltration is found on the muscle biopsy of what disease

polio

20

endoneural inflammatory infiltration with multifocal demylenation is seen in

Gillian Barre

21

what do NIssel substances in nerve cell bodies represent

RER where proteins are made

22

Shrinking of the cell body
pyknosis of the nucleus
loss of nissl substance
eosinophilic cytoplasm

acute neuronal injury Red Neuron

23

enlargement of cell body
eccentric uncles
enlargement of the nucleolus
dispersion of the nissle substance

axonal reaction

24

loss of neurons and functional groups of neurons
reactive gliosis

neuronal atrophy

25

a neurons that is reaction to acute irreversible damage is called a

red neuron

26

what is the most common cause of spontaneous lobar hemorrhage in the brain

amyloid angiopathy

27

where do cerebral amyloid angiopathy usually occur

in the occipital ( eye loss) or parietal lobes ( hearing loss)

28

most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children

atriovenous malformation

29

progressive headaches, nausea and vomiting and confusion are all sins if

hypertensive encephalopathy

30

ataxia
kyphoscoliosis
loss of vibration and proprioception

Friedrich ataxia

31

chiari malformations are congenial disorders that result from what

underdevelopment of the posterior fossa

32

tetanus prevents the release of what

inhibitory NT from the brian and SC ( glycine and gaba

33

botulinum inhibits the release of what

Ach

34

cholera stimulates what in the enterochromaffin cells

serotonin

35

normal CSF expansion following cerebral volume loss ( there is more space in the brain so it looks like there is more CSF) is seen in

hydrocephalus ex vacuo

36

why do children with hydrocephalus get hyperreflexia and hypertonicity

because of the UMN injury that is caused by the stretching of the periventricular pyramidal tracts

37

what are the effects of inca herniation on the ipsilateral oculomotor nerve

fixed dilated pupil with down and out eye deviation

38

injury to the midbrain and the pons from an increasing hernia will cause what to the eye

mid positioned and fixed pupils bilaterally with loss of vestibule-ocular reflexes

39

lesion before the red nucleus causes

decorticate posture

40

lesions after the red nucleus causes

decerebrate posture

41

acute onset of diplopia, with the eye in a down and out position because of the unopposed pull of the super oblique, CN 4 and the lateral rectus, CN 6 is seen in

diabetic CN 3 mononeuropathy

42

the somatic compartment of CN 3 that control s the extrocular muscles is located where

centrally

43

the autonomic component of the CN 3 that is responsible for constriction of the pupil and accommodation is located where

on the periphery

44

what part of CN 3 is affected in diabetic mononeuropathy

the central part (this is why the pupil size and accommodation are normal in diabetic mononeuropathy)

45

location of subdural hematoma

between the dura and the arachnoid

46

frontotemporal dementia is also called

Pick Disease

47

main difference between Picks and Alz

ALZ has impairment in recent memory and atrophy all over the brain not just in the frontal or temporal lobes

48

lentiform nucleus

globus pallidus and putamen

49

one of the first regions to suffer in ALZ patients

hippocampus ( new memories)

50

what is Gerstmann Syndrome (dominant side)

there there is a destruction in the inferior parietal lobe causing right/left confusion, dyscalculia and finger agnosia.

51

destruction of the sub thalamic nucleus cases what

hemiballismus

52

what is part of the basal ganglia system that sends glutamate to the globes pallid us

sub thalamic nucleus

53

best test to identify kaiser Fleischer ring

slit lamp examination

54

wilson disease presents with copper deposition in organs such as the liver and the

brain

55

copper chelators used in wilsons disease are

d-penicillamine and trientine

56

advanced hemochromatosis has an association with wha disease

diabetes mellitus

57

pure motor hemiparesis and a small cavitary lesion in the internal capsule likely is what

lacunar infarct

58

lacunar infarcts are caused by

chronic HTN

59

why is there impaired eye ADDuction in the latter gaze in MS

because of the demyelination of the medial longitudinal fasiculus

60

most common UDE of MS

fatigue

61

why can patients with MS feel fatigued after a hot shower or after strenuous physical activity

because of the decreased axonal transmission associated with increased heat

62

black curtain coming down into the visual eye field is associated with

amaurosis fugax

63

infection that precedes Guillian Barre

Campylobacter

64

what causes the segmental demyelnatino of the peripheral nervous tissue seen in Guillian Barre

infiltration with t cells and macrophages

65

what is myotonia

abnormally slow relaxation of muscles

66

difficulty lossening teh grip after a handshake or to release a doorknob suggests what disease

myotonic dystrophy

67

CTG repeat seen in

myotonic dystrophy

68

frontal balding, gonadal atrophy, cataracts, and weakness and gait disturbance are indications of

myotonic dystrophy

69

muscle fiber most affected in myotonic dystrophy

Type 1

70

tram track calcifications on skull radiograph is present in

Sturge Weber Syndrome

71

what is a name for NFB 1

Von Recklinghausen's disease

72

peripheral nervous system tumor
neurofibromas
optic nerve gliomas
lisch nodules cafe au last spots

NFB 1

73

mutations of VHL are on chromosome

3

74

mutations of APC are on chromosome

5

75

mutations of NF1 are on chromosome

17

76

mutations of NFB2 are on chromosome

22

77

mutation of RB1 are on chromosome

13

78

NF2 codes for

merlin

79

NF1 codes for

neurofibromin

80

synaptophsin is a

transmembrane glycoprotein that is on neurons and signifies a neuronal origin tumor

81

what tumors stain with GFAP

GBM
oligodendroliomas
ependymomas

82

what is it when there is decreased CSF resorption by the arachnoid granulations of the arachnoid matter

normal pressure hydrocephalus

83

individuals with normal pressure hydrocephalus have a past history of what

brian trauma or subarachnoid hemorrhage

84

magnetic gait presents with decreased step height an looks like the patients legs are stuck to the ground, this is seen in

normal pressure hyrdocephalus

85

what is a late complication of normal pressure hydrocephalus

urge incontinence

86

gait disturbance
urge incontince
cognitive disturbance

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

87

name the seziure:

no loss of consciousness
motor, sensoromic, or psychics symtpoms

simple

88

loss of consciousness and may have automatisms like lip smacking

complex

89

anticonvulsants for simple and complex seizures

- carbamazepine
- gabapentin
- phenobarbital
- phenytoin

90

loss of consciousness
diffuse muscle contraction of the limbs
rhythmic jerking

tonic clonic

91

no loss of consciousness
brief jerking movements

myoclonic

92

brief loss of consciousness
mau have automatism like lip smacking
usually no postictal state

absence

93

treatment for absence seizure

euthosuxomide

94

treatment for tonic clonic and myoclonic

lamotrigine
lecetiracetam
topirmate
valproic acid

95

which seizure presents with a preceding aura

complex partial

96

Kopek spots are seen in what

measles

97

name the structural protein in measles

hemagglutin and metric protein

98

what kind of virus is measles

single strand RNA virus that is a member of the paramyxovirus family

99

what is a complication that happens in children after they have had the measles virus

subacute sclerosing pan encephalitis

100

anti smooth muscle antibodies go with

autoimmune hepatitis

101

increased intestinal iron absorption is seen in

hemochromatosis

102

mutation in ATP7B specifically does what

stops hepatocyte copper transport so there is a decreased formation of ceruloplasmin and there is a build up of copper in the tissues