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Flashcards in Neurology Questions Deck (93):
1

beta pleated sheets are joined by what kind of bonds

hydrogen bonds

2

each amino acid in a sequence that forms a peptide bond is joined by what kind of bond?

hydrogen

3

what is the bond between two cysteine residues that are really strong and make it so that proteins cannot be denatured easily

disulfide bonds

4

what are non small cell lung tumors that arise near the superior sulcus (by the subclavian) and can compress the brachial plexus and sympathetic cervical ganglia? the are associated with smoking

pan coast tumor

5

mutation in FMR1 gene leads to

fragile X syndrome

6

what is the autosomal dominant condition associated with lens dislocation, dilatation of the proximal aorta, long fingers, and tall stature

marfan syndrome

7

paternal deletion of part of chromosome 15

Prader Willi

8

valproate, a bipolar medicine used in pregnant women is associated with a 10-20 fold risk of what in the baby

NTD

9

name two folate antagonist that could cause baby to have NTD

methotrexate
TMP-SMX

10

what drug reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndome

bethamethasone

11

increased lithium use in pregnancy can cause

ebstain anomoly

12

neural tube closes normally at what week

4

13

what nerve exists the obturator canal and adducts the thigh and gives sensation to the distal medial thigh

obturator nerve (L2-L4)

14

gluteus medius, minimus, and tensor fascia lata do what to the thigh?

Abduct ( inn. superior gluteal nerve)

15

extension of the leg is done by

quadriceps femori (inn. femurs nerve)

16

extension of the thigh is done by?

gluteus maximus (inferior gluteal nerve)

17

flexion of the thigh

psoas illiacus (inn. femoral nerve) and sartorius muscles (lumbar plexus inn)

18

what is the autosomal dominant condition caused by cerebellar atrophy in which there is disturbed gait in the first year of life (ataxia) and recurrent sinopulmonary infections with a high risk of cancer later due to impaired DNA repair genes

Ataxia-Telangiectasia

19

what condition is characterized by DNA hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation

Ataxia-Telangiectasia

20

what is caused by a hypersensitivity in DNA to cross link agents

Fanconi Syndrome

21

what occurs due to DNA mismatch repair enzymes defect and makes people susceptible to colon cancer

Hereditary non polyposis colorectal caner

22

anterograde axonal transport rely on

kinesin

23

retrograde axonal transport is done by

dynein

24

what maintains the shape of the RBC

spectrin

25

vimentin?

secures organelle inside the cytosol and provides resistance to mechanical stress

26

mortality rate

number of deaths per year / total popualtion

27

incidence

number of new cases / population at risk

28

prevelance

number of people with disease / total population

29

rate of increase of a disease

number of new cases per year - number of death per year / total population

30

disease specific mortality

number of deaths due to disease per year / total population

31

M2

heart

32

M1

brain

33

increased levels of methylmalonic acid and homocystien is seen in?

b12 deficiency and causes impaired DNA synthesis and impaired myelination

34

what is the condition where acute hemolytic anemia occurs in areas of oxidative stress

G6PD Deficiency

35

what is decreased in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

erythrocyte transketolase activity seen in thiamine deficiency (b1)

36

serum protoporphyrin are increased in what

lead poisoning
iron deficiency

37

acute dystonic reaction are due to the antagonism of what receptors

D2 in the nigrostriatal pathway

38

GABA receptor antagonist like Flumazenil can cause

pro-convulsant effects

39

Haloperidol and Fluphenazine are antipsychotics that cause what

blockage of D2 receptors causing dystonic reactions

40

what virus mainly causes aseptic meningitis

enterovirus

41

coronavirus causes what symptoms

cold

42

meningitis in immunocompromised patients

cryptococcus neoformans

43

Bethanechol is what

a cholinergic against used to stimulate peristalsis in post-operative ileus

44

atonic bladder is the same as

non obstructive urinary retention (treat with cholinergic drug)

45

what are the three indications for cholinergic agonistic drugs

atonic bladder
glaucoma
peristalsis induction

46

what seizures are asosicatied with jerky movements and the patient is usually young, healthy. this affects the upper extremity with preservation of consciousness

myoclonic seziures

47

name foru anticonvulsants

valproic acid
lamotreigene
levetiractem
topiramate

48

name for narrow spectrum antconvlusants

carbamazepine
phenytoin
phenobarbital
gabapentin

49

brand spectrum anti convulsant

valproic acid

50

what drug is a GABA - B agonist that can treat muscle spasticity

Baclofen

51

What is the alpha 2 agonist that can treat ADHD

clonidine

52

benzo that can treat status epilepticus

diazepam

53

drug that can treat tourettes syndrome

fluphenazine ( D2 antagonist)

54

levodopa can cause what side affects

anxiety and agitation (worsens when you add carbidopa because more dopamine is available to the brain)

55

adding carbidopa to l-dopa does what

makes sure that L-dopa isn't broken down in the periphery so it can be mainly used in the brain

56

since dopamine drugs cause nausea what can be added to stop this nausea and increase complianec

dopa decarboxylase inhibitor

57

Tizanidine

like Baclofen treats spasticity ( in MS patients)

58

Duloxetine

NE reuptake inhibitor that treats anxiety and depression

59

Nortriptline?

TCA that treats neuropathic pain and MIGRANE headaches especially with patients with depression/anxiety

60

Sumatriptan

treats acute migrant headaches

61

infarct of what artery causes macular sparing?

posterior cerebral artery

62

what spares the macula

middle cerebral artery

63

tetrodotoxin (puffer fish) and saxitoxin (dinoflagellets) do what

bind tot he sodium channels and do not allow and influx of soda into he action potential so depolarization will not occur

64

ciguatoxin ( exotic fish Moray eel) and Batrachotoxin (South American Frog) cause

constant opening of sodium channels making it so there is continuous depolarization

65

what causes back pain and radiates down the leg in a L5 dermatomal fashion, which is worsened by prolonged standing and walking.

l5 radiculopathy

66

L5 radiculopathy presents how

weekness in:
dorm of foot
buttocks
lateral thigh and calf

67

dorsiflexion of the footie done by

tibialis anterior

68

foot eversion si done by

peroneus

69

toe extension is done by

extensor digitorum brevis

70

what syndrome is associated with contralateral hemiparesis or spastic motion and defect of CN 3 ( eye will look down and out) due to cerebral peduncle injury

Weber syndrome

71

if you correct hyponatremia too quickly what can happen

locked in syndrome

72

microaneuryms due to severe HTN seen in basal ganglia and thalamus

Charcot-Bouchard Aneurysm

73

cusaes of SAH

AV malformaiton
berry aneurysm
trauma

74

intraventricular hemorrhage happens in who

premature babies (

75

what three structures run through the carotid sheath

- IJV
- Carotid Artery
- Vagus Nerve

76

wet wacky and wobbly is associated with what

normal pressure hydrocephalus

77

atrophied brain tissue around ventricles that looks like hydrocephalus is

hydrocephalus ex vacuo

78

drug for pseudo tumor cerebri

azcetozolamide

79

rapid iv anesthetic that has a high triglyceride content

Propofol

80

PCP analogue that causes dissociative anesthesia

ketamine

81

what drugs treat Crigler-Najjar Syndrome

Barbs

82

Crigler- Najjar Syndrome

when the liver won't make enzymes that are needed to break down billirubin

83

how to treat BENZO overdose

Flumazenil

84

mu agonist (opiod)

endorphin

85

delta against (opioid)

enkephalon

86

kappa agonist (opioid)

dynorphin

87

use of loperamide (opiod)

diarhea

88

use of tramadol (opiod)

no addicitve

89

use of dextromethorphan (opiod)

cough suppressant

90

use of butorphanol (opiod)

deceases respiratory depression

91

what gene mutation is associated with Malignant hyperthermi

RYR1

92

HOW DO LOCAL ANESTHETICS WORK

block sodium channels

93

name three local anesthetics

Procaine
Lidocaine
Cocaine