Sept 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sept 21 Deck (52):
1

what NT is decreased in alzhemiers disease

Ach

2

what is an acetylcholinesterase drug that is used to treat Ach

Donepizil

3

what is the osculatory finding that indicates a high regurgitant volume in mitral regurg with left ventricle overload

left sided S3 gallop

4

mid systolic click is heard in

mitral valve prolapse

5

what is seen in inspiraiton

increase in venous return to the right heart and decrease venous return to left heart

6

what murmurs increase with inspiration

right sided

7

what murmurs decrease with insipration

left sided

8

what is seen with valsalva

decrease preload
decrease after load

9

what murmurs increase with valsalva

MVP
HCM
(decrease left ventricular volume)

10

what is seen with abrupt standing

decrease preload and afterload

11

what murmur increases with abrupt standing

MVP and HCM

12

wat is seen with squatting

increase preload and aferload

13

what murmur is increased in squatting

everything but MVP and HCM

14

what is seen on passive leg raise

increased preload

15

what murmur is increased in passive leg raise

everything but MVP and HCM

16

what is seen with handgrip

increased after load

17

what murmur increases with hadngrip

AR
MR
VSD

18

what murmur decreases with hand grip

HCM and AS

19

what increase bile acid concentration which promotes gall stone dissolution by improving the solubility of cholesterol

hydrophilic bile acids (ursodeoxycholic acid)

20

a 3.0 Hz spike wave complex superimposed on normal background is seen in

Absence sezurei

21

tx for absence seizure

ethosuxomide and sodium valproate

22

tx for generalizes tonic clonic seizure

phenobarbital and carbamazepine

23

tx for complex partial seizures

carbamazepine

24

what will be increased in the amniotic fluid of someone with a neural tube defect

Acetylcholinesterase and AFP

25

Amino glycosides inhibit what two things

mRNA genetic code reading and protein synthesis

26

vancomycin inhibits?

cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis

27

What does Daptomycin do

it disrupts the bacterial cell membrane and causes intracellular leakage

28

UDE of daptomycin

myopathy and rhabdomyolysis

29

cystic and solid tumor in the cerebellum of a child

pilocytic astrocytoma

30

cytokines responsible for granuloma formation

Il-12 : stimulates TH1 cells
IFN-y: produced by TH1 and stimulates macrophages
TNF-a: stimulated by machrophages

31

what does C3a do

it is an anaphylatoxin that stimulates histamine release from mast cells

32

What does IL-4 do

stimulates TH2 cells and isotope switching to IgE

33

what does IL-5 do

stimulates eosinophils and causes switching to IgA

34

bone matrix formation problem is seen in

Osteogenesis imperfecta

35

bone mineralization problem seen in

Vitamin D deficiency

36

damage to eat cause Wallenburg Syndrome ( Lateral Medullary Syndrome)

posterior cerebellar artery that can also be damged by cutting of the vertebral artery in a cervical spine trauma

37

presentation of Wallenburg Syndrome (5)

ipsilateral cerebellar signs
loss of pain/temp on ipsilateral face and contralateral body
bulbar weakness
ipsilateral horners
nystagmus/vertigo

38

basilar occlusion causes damage to the base of the pons and presents as

- quadriplegia
- bulbar dysfunction
- ocular problems

39

clozapine patients need to monitor

neutrophil count - agranulocytosis
seizures
myocarditis

40

what does clozapine treat

treatment resistant schizophrenia with suicidal ideaiton

41

second generation antipsychotic that can cause prolactin secretion

Risperidone

42

second generation antipsychotic that can cause long QT interval

Ziprasidone

43

progesterone antagonist that is give with Misoprotol ( PGE2 agonist) to cause aboriton

Mifepristone

44

how does methotrexate treat ectopic pregnancy

it inhibits the trophoblast division which hinders implantation

45

where are bile acids reabsorbed

in the terminal ileum

46

three causes of minimal change disease

insect bite
immunization
respiratory infection

47

tryptase is a marker for

mast cell activation

48

what is antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

recurrent venous thrombosis and pregnancy loss

49

what is the antigen that is seen in polymyositis

histidyl-tRNA synthetase

50

what is the antidote to serotonin syndrome

cyproheptadine

51

down syndrome children have 3 copies of what

amyloid precursor protein

52

What is the receptor on the surface of a T cell

TCR