Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 10 Deck (120):
What system does the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood they contain make up?
Through what vessels is the blood pumped away from the heart?
Through what vessels does the blood return to the heart?
What are the microscopic vessels that link these larger vessels called?
What liquid is about 55% of the total blood volume?
What is the other 45% of the blood made up of?
red blood cells, white blood cells
What is the most plentiful of the blood protein, and is manufactured in the liver and helps regulate the amount of water in the blood?
What, also made in the liver as well as the lymph fluid, are a broad category of blood proteins that helps to transport fats throughout the body and help fight infection?
What blood protein made in the liver helps in the clotting of blood?
What condition may occur when a person loses too much blood or plasma as a result of an injury or a burn, and the body's blood pressure may fall to a critical low?
What is a master of design for doing its job of carrying oxygen?
red blood cells (erythrocyte)
What special iron-containing blood protein which binds easily to oxygen and gives blood its characteristic red color, is contained by cytoplasm of the red blood cells?
What is a disorder resulting from too little oxygen being transported to body cells?
What unique disease of the erythrocytes is a genetic disease caused by a genetic defection in the hemoglobin molecules that causes them to clump together elongated crystals under certain conditions?
Where are surplus red blood cells stored until they are needed?
What cells are produced in the bone marrow and the lymph nodes?
white blood cells (leucocytes)
What can a person have if their blood contains a great excess of white blood cells, and no apparent infection is found?
What tiny disk-shaped fragments produced in bone marrow serve as roving patch kits?
What type of blood's red blood cells contain antigen A?
type A blood
What type of blood's red blood cells contain antigen B?
type B blood
What type of blood's red blood cells contain both types of antigen?
type AB blood
What type of blood's red blood cells lack both antigen? (the most common type)
Type O blood
Can any one receive type O blood?
Yes, because it's red blood cells have neither A nor B "tags" to alarm the recipient's immune system.
What are blood donors with type O blood sometimes called, because they can donate to people of any blood type?
Why can a type AB individual receive any type of blood?
Because neither the A nor B "tags" alarm his immune system.
What are people with type AB blood sometimes called universal recipients?
Because neither the A nor B "tags" alarm his immune system.
What other identification "tag" is contained by most people's blood?
What are people said to be when their red blood cells contain Rh factor?
What are people said to be when their red blood cells do not contain Rh factor?
Which 17th century Englishman was the first to describe the circulation of blood accurately?
What tough white sac helps support and protect the heart?
What four main features are located in the heart?
What two thin-walled chambers make up the upper part of the pumping mechanism?
What thick-walled chambers make up the lower part of the heart?
What thick vertical wall divides the left atrium and left ventricle from the right atrium and right ventricle?
Which of the three layers of the heart contains the muscles?
What inside layer of the heart provides a smooth coating for the heart's interior?
What muscle flaps prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction in the heart?
What two valves allow blood to flow from each atrium into the corresponding ventricle?
A-V valves (Atrio-Ventricle)
What valve connects the left atrium and left ventricle?
What valve connects the right atrium and right ventricle?
What valves allow blood to flow from the ventricles but prevent blood from flowing backward into the ventricles from the body?
What valve allows blood to exit the left ventricle and enter the aorta?
aortic semilunar valve
What allows blood to exit the right ventricle and enter the pulmonary arteries?
pulmonary semilunar valve
Through what veins does deoxygenated blood return to the heart?
venae cava (body's largest veins)
What vein returns blood from the upper part of the body?
superior vena cava
What vein returns blood from the lower part of the body?
inferior vena cava
What artery transports blood from the heart to the lungs?
What blood travels back to the heart from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins?
What is the body's largest artery?
What vessels collect the blood from the tissues of the heart and valve into a larger vein called the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium?
What veins collect the blood from the tissues of the heart and carry it to a larger vein called the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium?
What is a type of heart failure caused by blockage of blood flow to the heart?
What condition occurs when the heart ceases to beat and instead twitches randomly?
What machine is required by many heart repairs because the heart must be stopped and often opened?
What is the contracting and pumping phase of heart actual called?
What is the relaxing and filling phase called?
What is the cardiac cycle perceived as?
What is an abnormal rushing to blowing sound produced by valve damage called?
How many nucleuses per cell does cardiac muscle contain?
What is the beating of the heart regulated by?
cardiac conduction system
What is the master control unit of the heart?
the senatorial node (S-A node)
What type of doctor specializes in the heart and its disorders?
What machine helps a cardiologist study the electrical activity of the heart?
What are the three main kinds of blood vessels ?
arteries, veins, and capillaries
What do arteries form when they branch deep into the body?
What do arterioles form when they branch into smaller tubes?
What do capillaries form when they merge?
What is the movement of blood though all parts of the body except the lungs?
What artery leaves the heart from the left ventricle, and branches into smaller arteries which enter every organ of the body?
What arteries branch off the aortic arch, and carry blood to the head and brain?
What arteries branch to carry blood to the arms?
What is the vein which returns blood to the heart from the legs and lower regions of the body?
inferior vena cava
What vein returns blood to the heart from the head, arms, and upper body?
superior vena cava
What veins drain the head?
What veins drain the arms?
What veins drain the legs?
What is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs known as?
What is the movement of blood from the digestive organs to the liver called?
What vein carries blood into the liver from the digestive tract ?
hepatic portal vein
What vein returns blood to the inferior vena cava from the liver?
What is the movement of blood from the body organs through the kidneys known as?
What artery carries blood to the kidneys, where the blood is filtered and various wastes are removed?
What form of arteriosclerosis is the blockage of the arteries?
What is the deposits of fatty mineral and calcium build up called?
What is the amount of force that blood exerts upon the walls of the blood vessels known as?
What is an individual said to suffer from when his blood pressure exceeds 130 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic?
high blood pressure
What is high blood pressure medically known as?
What is the rhythmic change of blood pressure in your arteries known as?
What is the leading cause of death among Americans?
What system functions to supply the body with oxygen and to rid it of excess carbon dioxide?
What two, large, spongy organs located inside the thoracic cavity on opposite sides of your heart, are the primary organs of your respiratory system?
What is the process of breathing, (inhaling and exhaling) and gas exchange called?
What is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood cells and the tissue cells called?
What respiration takes place within the cell?
Through what irregularly shaped pockets in the nasal cavity does air circulate though?
What is the opening of the trachea?
What flap of tissue covers the opening of the trachea?
What two folds of elastic tissue is inside the boxlike larynx produce sound for speech?
What two branches does the trachea divide into?
What is each branch of the trachea called?
What part of each bronchus branches when it enters the lungs?
What are the tubes called that split and split so that they are even smaller then the bronchial tubes?
What are the saclike structures at the end of the bronchioles?
What is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes called?
What can severe bronchitis lead to?
What is an allergic condition characterized by spasms of the bronchial tubes suddenly constricting, and making breathing difficult?
What double membrane lines the inside of the rib cage, providing lubrication to prevent friction between the ribs and the delicate surface of the lungs?
What is it called when the pleura becomes inflamed?
What thick sheet of muscle separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity?
What muscles attached to the ribs contract and lift the ribs and breastbone upwards when a person inhales?
What process occurs when air from the surroundings rushes in the lungs equalizing the pressure caused by increasing the area of the lungs?
What is the opposite of inhalation?
What is the optimal amount of air that the lungs can hold?
What is the most common respiratory disease of all?
What is another common threat to the respiratory system?
What is caused by a slow-growing bacterium that infects the lungs?
What is a progressive deterioration of the alveoli caused by malfunctioning enzymes?
What is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States?