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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 10 Deck (120):
1

What system does the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood they contain make up?

cardiovascular system

2

Through what vessels is the blood pumped away from the heart?

arteries

3

Through what vessels does the blood return to the heart?

veins

4

What are the microscopic vessels that link these larger vessels called?

capillaries

5

What liquid is about 55% of the total blood volume?

plasma

6

What is the other 45% of the blood made up of?

red blood cells, white blood cells

7

What is the most plentiful of the blood protein, and is manufactured in the liver and helps regulate the amount of water in the blood?

albumin

8

What, also made in the liver as well as the lymph fluid, are a broad category of blood proteins that helps to transport fats throughout the body and help fight infection?

globulins

9

What blood protein made in the liver helps in the clotting of blood?

fibrinogen

10

What condition may occur when a person loses too much blood or plasma as a result of an injury or a burn, and the body's blood pressure may fall to a critical low?

circulatory shock

11

What is a master of design for doing its job of carrying oxygen?

red blood cells (erythrocyte)

12

What special iron-containing blood protein which binds easily to oxygen and gives blood its characteristic red color, is contained by cytoplasm of the red blood cells?

hemoglobin

13

What is a disorder resulting from too little oxygen being transported to body cells?

Anemia

14

What unique disease of the erythrocytes is a genetic disease caused by a genetic defection in the hemoglobin molecules that causes them to clump together elongated crystals under certain conditions?

sickle-cell anemia

15

Where are surplus red blood cells stored until they are needed?

spleen

16

What cells are produced in the bone marrow and the lymph nodes?

white blood cells (leucocytes)

17

What can a person have if their blood contains a great excess of white blood cells, and no apparent infection is found?

leukemia

18

What tiny disk-shaped fragments produced in bone marrow serve as roving patch kits?

platelets

19

What type of blood's red blood cells contain antigen A?

type A blood

20

What type of blood's red blood cells contain antigen B?

type B blood

21

What type of blood's red blood cells contain both types of antigen?

type AB blood

22

What type of blood's red blood cells lack both antigen? (the most common type)

Type O blood

23

Can any one receive type O blood?

Yes, because it's red blood cells have neither A nor B "tags" to alarm the recipient's immune system.

24

What are blood donors with type O blood sometimes called, because they can donate to people of any blood type?

universal donors

25

Why can a type AB individual receive any type of blood?

Because neither the A nor B "tags" alarm his immune system.

26

What are people with type AB blood sometimes called universal recipients?

Because neither the A nor B "tags" alarm his immune system.

27

What other identification "tag" is contained by most people's blood?

Rh factor

28

What are people said to be when their red blood cells contain Rh factor?

Rh positive

29

What are people said to be when their red blood cells do not contain Rh factor?

Rh negative

30

Which 17th century Englishman was the first to describe the circulation of blood accurately?

William Harvey

31

What tough white sac helps support and protect the heart?

pericardium

32

What four main features are located in the heart?

chambers

33

What two thin-walled chambers make up the upper part of the pumping mechanism?

Atria

34

What thick-walled chambers make up the lower part of the heart?

ventricles

35

What thick vertical wall divides the left atrium and left ventricle from the right atrium and right ventricle?

The septum

36

Which of the three layers of the heart contains the muscles?

myocardium

37

What inside layer of the heart provides a smooth coating for the heart's interior?

endocardium

38

What muscle flaps prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction in the heart?

valves.

39

What two valves allow blood to flow from each atrium into the corresponding ventricle?

A-V valves (Atrio-Ventricle)

40

What valve connects the left atrium and left ventricle?

bicuspid valve

41

What valve connects the right atrium and right ventricle?

tricuspid valve

42

What valves allow blood to flow from the ventricles but prevent blood from flowing backward into the ventricles from the body?

semilunar valves

43

What valve allows blood to exit the left ventricle and enter the aorta?

aortic semilunar valve

44

What allows blood to exit the right ventricle and enter the pulmonary arteries?

pulmonary semilunar valve

45

Through what veins does deoxygenated blood return to the heart?

venae cava (body's largest veins)

46

What vein returns blood from the upper part of the body?

superior vena cava

47

What vein returns blood from the lower part of the body?

inferior vena cava

48

What artery transports blood from the heart to the lungs?

pulmonary artery

49

What blood travels back to the heart from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins?

oxygenated blood

50

What is the body's largest artery?

aorta

51

What vessels collect the blood from the tissues of the heart and valve into a larger vein called the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium?

coronary arteries

52

What veins collect the blood from the tissues of the heart and carry it to a larger vein called the coronary sinus, which empties into the right atrium?

cardiac veins

53

What is a type of heart failure caused by blockage of blood flow to the heart?

heart attack

54

What condition occurs when the heart ceases to beat and instead twitches randomly?

ventricular fibrillation

55

What machine is required by many heart repairs because the heart must be stopped and often opened?

heart-lung machine

56

What is the contracting and pumping phase of heart actual called?

systole

57

What is the relaxing and filling phase called?

diastole

58

What is the cardiac cycle perceived as?

heartbeat

59

What is an abnormal rushing to blowing sound produced by valve damage called?

heart murmur

60

How many nucleuses per cell does cardiac muscle contain?

one

61

What is the beating of the heart regulated by?

cardiac conduction system

62

What is the master control unit of the heart?

the senatorial node (S-A node)

63

What type of doctor specializes in the heart and its disorders?

cardiologist

64

What machine helps a cardiologist study the electrical activity of the heart?

electrocardiogram

65

What are the three main kinds of blood vessels ?

arteries, veins, and capillaries

66

What do arteries form when they branch deep into the body?

arterioles

67

What do arterioles form when they branch into smaller tubes?

capillaries

68

What do capillaries form when they merge?

venules

69

What is the movement of blood though all parts of the body except the lungs?

systemic circulation

70

What artery leaves the heart from the left ventricle, and branches into smaller arteries which enter every organ of the body?

aorta

71

What arteries branch off the aortic arch, and carry blood to the head and brain?

carotid arteries

72

What arteries branch to carry blood to the arms?

subclavian arteries

73

What is the vein which returns blood to the heart from the legs and lower regions of the body?

inferior vena cava

74

What vein returns blood to the heart from the head, arms, and upper body?

superior vena cava

75

What veins drain the head?

jugular veins

76

What veins drain the arms?

subclavian veins

77

What veins drain the legs?

femoral veins

78

What is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs known as?

pulmonary circulation

79

What is the movement of blood from the digestive organs to the liver called?

portal circulation

80

What vein carries blood into the liver from the digestive tract ?

hepatic portal vein

81

What vein returns blood to the inferior vena cava from the liver?

hepatic vein

82

What is the movement of blood from the body organs through the kidneys known as?

renal circulation

83

What artery carries blood to the kidneys, where the blood is filtered and various wastes are removed?

renal vein

84

What form of arteriosclerosis is the blockage of the arteries?

atherosclerosis

85

What is the deposits of fatty mineral and calcium build up called?

plaque

86

What is the amount of force that blood exerts upon the walls of the blood vessels known as?

blood pressure

87

What is an individual said to suffer from when his blood pressure exceeds 130 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic?

high blood pressure

88

What is high blood pressure medically known as?

hypertension

89

What is the rhythmic change of blood pressure in your arteries known as?

pulse

90

What is the leading cause of death among Americans?

cardiovascular disease

91

What system functions to supply the body with oxygen and to rid it of excess carbon dioxide?

respiratory system

92

What two, large, spongy organs located inside the thoracic cavity on opposite sides of your heart, are the primary organs of your respiratory system?

lungs

93

What is the process of breathing, (inhaling and exhaling) and gas exchange called?

external respiration

94

What is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood cells and the tissue cells called?

internal respiration

95

What respiration takes place within the cell?

cellular respiration

96

Through what irregularly shaped pockets in the nasal cavity does air circulate though?

nasal meatuses

97

What is the opening of the trachea?

glottis

98

What flap of tissue covers the opening of the trachea?

epiglottis

99

What two folds of elastic tissue is inside the boxlike larynx produce sound for speech?

vocal chords

100

What two branches does the trachea divide into?

bronchi

101

What is each branch of the trachea called?

bronchus

102

What part of each bronchus branches when it enters the lungs?

bronchial tubes

103

What are the tubes called that split and split so that they are even smaller then the bronchial tubes?

bronchioles

104

What are the saclike structures at the end of the bronchioles?

alveoli

105

What is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes called?

bronchitis

106

What can severe bronchitis lead to?

pneumonia

107

What is an allergic condition characterized by spasms of the bronchial tubes suddenly constricting, and making breathing difficult?

bronchial asthma

108

What double membrane lines the inside of the rib cage, providing lubrication to prevent friction between the ribs and the delicate surface of the lungs?

pleural membrane

109

What is it called when the pleura becomes inflamed?

pleurisy

110

What thick sheet of muscle separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity?

diaphragm

111

What muscles attached to the ribs contract and lift the ribs and breastbone upwards when a person inhales?

intercostal muscles

112

What process occurs when air from the surroundings rushes in the lungs equalizing the pressure caused by increasing the area of the lungs?

inhalation

113

What is the opposite of inhalation?

exhalation

114

What is the optimal amount of air that the lungs can hold?

optimal capacity

115

What is the most common respiratory disease of all?

common cold

116

What is another common threat to the respiratory system?

the flu

117

What is caused by a slow-growing bacterium that infects the lungs?

tuberculosis

118

What is a progressive deterioration of the alveoli caused by malfunctioning enzymes?

Emphysema

119

What is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States?

Cystic fibrosis

120

What is the most devastating respiratory disease?

lung cancer