Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 15 Deck (63):
What is the study of how living things interact with one another and with their physical environment known as?
What term do ecologists use to refer to an organism's environment of home?
What are biotic factors?
the living things---animals, plants, fungi, and microbes----of the habitat.
What are the nonliving things referred to as?
What is the relatively thin layer of the earth's surface in which life exists?
What are large geographic regions?
What is a biome identified by?
What are the smaller areas within each biome?
All ecosystems fall into what two general categories?
terrestrial and aquatic
What term do ecologists use to refer to all of the living things in an ecosystem?
What is a group of organisms of the same species living in the same ecosystem?
Into what individual living things can each population be further divided into?
What is the number and variety of species living within an ecosystem?
What is the ability of the ecosystem to support these organisms?
What is the ideal range for temperature within an organisms tolerance range where it will thrive?
What is any factor outside an organism's tolerance range?
What, like green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, are autotrophs that obtain energy from sunlight?
What are autotrophs that obtain energy from chemical substances rather than from sunlight?
What are consumers that feed n other animals?
What are consumers which feed on both plants and animals?
What are bacteria and fungi that feed on detritus by secreting enzymes that break it down into simpler molecules?
What also feed on detritus, but cannot actually convert the detritus into a soil component as decomposers do?
What is a classification which describes its feeding relationship to other organisms in its ecosystem?
What is the carnivore at the top of the food chain often called?
What are herbivores called, because they eat plants directly?
What are animals that eat herbivores called?
What is a model used by ecologists to show all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level?
What shows the energy transferred from one trophic level to the next?
What represents the total mass of living matter per unit area, or biomass, at each trophic level in an ecosystem?
What represents the number of organisms at each trophic level and shows that population size usually decreases at each higher trophic level?
What may be defined as a close relationship between two different species over a period of time?
What is a relationship in which both organisms benefit?
What is a relationship between two organisms in which one, called the parasite, benefits while the other, called the host, is harmed?
What is a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped?
What involves a predatory-prey relationship?
What in s relationship in which two organisms compete for the same limited resources scubas food, water, and shelter?
What is a relationship in which one organism inhabits another?
In what relationship do organisms share only an indirect relationship.
What is a relationship in which grazing animals fee in plants by cropping ports of the plant without killing it?
In what cycle does water move from the soil and from the water surfaces of the earth, though the atmosphere, and then back to the earth again?
What are the three major processes for the hydrological cycle?
evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
What include the carbon-oxygen cycle and the nitrogen cycle?
What involve nutrients found in the soil ad rocks of the earth's surface?
What is one of the main sedentary cycles?
What term is often used to refer to the combination of a region's climax vegetation and its animal populations?
What major biome extends across the northernmost parts of North America, Europe, and Asia?
What is a permanently frozen layer of soil found 2 to 3 feet below the surface that does not allow roots and water to penetrate deeply into the soil?
What vegetation can be found at a biome that has vegetation and climatic conditions similar to the arctic tundra, although the soil has better drainage and no permafrost?
What is another name for a boreal forest, or taiga, which extends throughout much of the northern United States, and through the northern parts of Europe and Asia?
northern coniferous forest
What type of forest extends from the east coast of the United States to the border of the grasslands of the midwestern states where seasons are well defined with cold winters and hot summers?
temperate deciduous forest
What are areas where more water is lost through evaporation that is gained from rain?
What hot and humid regions receive abundant rain and have a year round growing season?
tropical rain forests
What biomes are larger then the terrestrial biomes and show great variations in temperature, dissolving nutrients, gases, and sunlight?
What are classified according to whether the water is flowing or is standing?
What ecosystems are associated withe the ocean, starting from the the shore and moving towards the open sea?
What occurs when nutrient-rich freshwater from rivers and streams meets and mixes with seawater?
What zones, sometimes known as littoral zones, are the areas located between the highest and lowest tides along the coastline?
What zones, also called coastal zones, are the regions that extend past the intertidal zones until you reach the edge of the continental shelf?
What zones extend from the continental shelves into the open ocean?
What are the first organisms that colonize a disturbed ecosystem called?
What is a series of changes that may take months, years, decades, or even centuries begins to take place?
What starts with barren ground, similar to what you observe after a volcanic eruption or in sand dunes?