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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 15 Deck (63):
1

What is the study of how living things interact with one another and with their physical environment known as?

ecology

2

What term do ecologists use to refer to an organism's environment of home?

habitat

3

What are biotic factors?

the living things---animals, plants, fungi, and microbes----of the habitat.

4

What are the nonliving things referred to as?

abiotic factors

5

What is the relatively thin layer of the earth's surface in which life exists?

biosphere

6

What are large geographic regions?

biomes

7

What is a biome identified by?

its vegetation

8

What are the smaller areas within each biome?

ecosystem

9

All ecosystems fall into what two general categories?

terrestrial and aquatic

10

What term do ecologists use to refer to all of the living things in an ecosystem?

community

11

What is a group of organisms of the same species living in the same ecosystem?

population

12

Into what individual living things can each population be further divided into?

organisms

13

What is the number and variety of species living within an ecosystem?

biodiversity

14

What is the ability of the ecosystem to support these organisms?

carrying capacity

15

What is the ideal range for temperature within an organisms tolerance range where it will thrive?

optimum range

16

What is any factor outside an organism's tolerance range?

limiting factor

17

What, like green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, are autotrophs that obtain energy from sunlight?

Photoautotrophs

18

What are autotrophs that obtain energy from chemical substances rather than from sunlight?

Chemoautotrophs

19

What are consumers that feed n other animals?

carnivores

20

What are consumers which feed on both plants and animals?

omnivore

21

What are bacteria and fungi that feed on detritus by secreting enzymes that break it down into simpler molecules?

decomposers

22

What also feed on detritus, but cannot actually convert the detritus into a soil component as decomposers do?

detritivores

23

What is a classification which describes its feeding relationship to other organisms in its ecosystem?

trophic level

24

What is the carnivore at the top of the food chain often called?

top carnivore

25

What are herbivores called, because they eat plants directly?

primary consumers

26

What are animals that eat herbivores called?

secondary consumers

27

What is a model used by ecologists to show all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level?

food web

28

What shows the energy transferred from one trophic level to the next?

energy pyramid

29

What represents the total mass of living matter per unit area, or biomass, at each trophic level in an ecosystem?

biomass pyramid

30

What represents the number of organisms at each trophic level and shows that population size usually decreases at each higher trophic level?

number pyramid

31

What may be defined as a close relationship between two different species over a period of time?

symbiosis

32

What is a relationship in which both organisms benefit?

Mutualism

33

What is a relationship between two organisms in which one, called the parasite, benefits while the other, called the host, is harmed?

parasitism

34

What is a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped?

commensalism

35

What involves a predatory-prey relationship?

Predation

36

What in s relationship in which two organisms compete for the same limited resources scubas food, water, and shelter?

competition

37

What is a relationship in which one organism inhabits another?

Amensalism

38

In what relationship do organisms share only an indirect relationship.

neutralism

39

What is a relationship in which grazing animals fee in plants by cropping ports of the plant without killing it?

herbivory

40

In what cycle does water move from the soil and from the water surfaces of the earth, though the atmosphere, and then back to the earth again?

hydrological cycle

41

What are the three major processes for the hydrological cycle?

evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

42

What include the carbon-oxygen cycle and the nitrogen cycle?

Atmospheric cycle

43

What involve nutrients found in the soil ad rocks of the earth's surface?

sedimentary cycle

44

What is one of the main sedentary cycles?

phosphorus cycle

45

What term is often used to refer to the combination of a region's climax vegetation and its animal populations?

climax community

46

What major biome extends across the northernmost parts of North America, Europe, and Asia?

Arctic tundra

47

What is a permanently frozen layer of soil found 2 to 3 feet below the surface that does not allow roots and water to penetrate deeply into the soil?

permafrost

48

What vegetation can be found at a biome that has vegetation and climatic conditions similar to the arctic tundra, although the soil has better drainage and no permafrost?

alpine tundra

49

What is another name for a boreal forest, or taiga, which extends throughout much of the northern United States, and through the northern parts of Europe and Asia?

northern coniferous forest

50

What type of forest extends from the east coast of the United States to the border of the grasslands of the midwestern states where seasons are well defined with cold winters and hot summers?

temperate deciduous forest

51

What are areas where more water is lost through evaporation that is gained from rain?

deserts

52

What hot and humid regions receive abundant rain and have a year round growing season?

tropical rain forests

53

What biomes are larger then the terrestrial biomes and show great variations in temperature, dissolving nutrients, gases, and sunlight?

aquatic biomes

54

What are classified according to whether the water is flowing or is standing?

freshwater ecosystem

55

What ecosystems are associated withe the ocean, starting from the the shore and moving towards the open sea?

marine ecosustem

56

What occurs when nutrient-rich freshwater from rivers and streams meets and mixes with seawater?

estuary

57

What zones, sometimes known as littoral zones, are the areas located between the highest and lowest tides along the coastline?

Intertidal zones

58

What zones, also called coastal zones, are the regions that extend past the intertidal zones until you reach the edge of the continental shelf?

neritic zones

59

What zones extend from the continental shelves into the open ocean?

oceanic zones

60

What are the first organisms that colonize a disturbed ecosystem called?

pioneer species

61

What is a series of changes that may take months, years, decades, or even centuries begins to take place?

ecological succession

62

What starts with barren ground, similar to what you observe after a volcanic eruption or in sand dunes?

primary succession

63

What starts with ready soil and pioneer species, as in an abandoned field or a burned forest.

secondary succession