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0

What is the organized study of the composition and interactions of matter.

Chemistry

1

What are the five main principals of Dalton's atomic theory?

1. Every element consists of atoms.
2. All atoms of a particular element have the same properties.
3. Different elements have different properties.
4. Atoms of different elements can combine in different ways to form compound elements.
5. Chemical processes are the result of the rearrangement, combination, or separation of atoms.

2

What is the name for substances composed of a single type of atom?

Element

3

What is the term for substances composed of more than one type of atom linked together?

Compound

4

What element does "Cl" represent?

Chlorine

5

What element does "Hg" represent?

Mercury

6

What element does "U" represent?

Uranium

7

What is the dense central core of an atom called?

The nucleus

8

What are unique abbreviations given to each element.

Chemical symbols

9

What determines an atom's atomic number?

The number of protons in the nucleus

10

What subatomic particle of the atom is found outside the nucleus?

The electron

11

What is a group of two or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds to form a distinct unit?

Molecule

12

What are subatomic particles?

Any particle that is smaller than an atom

14

What are subatomic particles found in atomic nuclei?

nucleons

14

What are neutrons?

Nucleons that have no electrical charge.

15

What are nucleons that carry a positive charge and determine the "identity" of an atom?

protons

16

Atoms that are the same element but have different numbers of neutrons are __________ of that element.

isotopes

17

What is an anion?

A negative ion.

18

What is a cation?

A positive ion.

19

A substance that consists of ions is _______ ?

Ionic

20

What theory states that tiny particles such as electrons do not absorb or release energy smoothly?

The quantum theory.

21

What is average mass of all the natural isotopes of an element calculated according to the isotopes' relative abundance called?

average atomic mass

22

What principal suggests that it is impossible to simultaneously measure both the position and the velocity of an electron?

Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

23

What are the layers outside the nucleus of an atom that hold electrons called?

Electron shells

24

What is the name for the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus?

Mass number

25

The most familiar model of the atom pictures the nucleus surrounded by electrons that move in a circular orbits at specific energy levels. What is this model called?

The Bohr model

26

Any substance that is unstable (and thus likely to produce radiation) is ___________.

radioactive

27

List the three types of nuclear decay.

Alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay.

28

What does half-life of a radioactive substance represent?

The length of time required for one half of the original substance to decay into a new substance.

29

Explain how the different ways alpha, beta, and gamma decay change the nucleus.

Alpha decay is when the atom loses two protons and two neutrons. Beta decay is when a neutron changes into a proton (changes from neutral to positive charge). Gamma decay is when the nucleus releases energy with no change in composition.

30

What process spits an atom's nucleus to produce enormous amounts of heat energy and gamma rays?

Nuclear fission

31

What term refers to the amount of fissionable material required for a chain reaction to occur?

Critical mass

32

What is a device that harnesses a controlled nuclear chain reaction to produce useful energy?

Nuclear reactor

33

What process do hydrogen bombs use to produce an enormous amount of heat?

Nuclear fusion

34

What do quantum numbers represent?

The overall motion of each electron.

35

What model, patterned after the wave-mechanical model, represents the probability of finding an electron at a given point?

The electron-cloud model

36

What is a device that initiates an uncontrolled chain reaction?

Atomic bomb

37

What process splits an atoms nucleus to produce amorous amount of heat energy, and gamma rays?

Nuclear fission

38

What term refers to the amount of fissionable material required for a chain reaction to occur?

Critical mass

39

What is a device that harnesses a controlled nuclear chain reaction to produce useful energy?

Nuclear reactor

40

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in the valence (outermost) shell of an atom.

41

The outside shell of an atom is called the valence shell. What are the electrons inside called?

Valence electrons

42

State the octet rule.

Most atoms tend to react to obtain eight electrons in their valence shell.

43

What does the periodic law state?

When elements are arranged by their increasing atomic numbers, they show regular and repeating or periodic properties.

44

What term refers to a column in the periodic table of the elements?

A group.

45

What is a table of elements arranged by atomic number and number of valence electrons

The periodic table of the elements

46

What term refers to a category of elements characterized by being hard, dense, shiny, and good electrical conductors?

Metals

47

What group contains the alkali metals? Which element in this group is not an alkali metal?

Group 1; hydrogen

48

What elements fit between groups 3 & 4 of the periodic table?

Inner transitional metals.

49

What is the name given to the elements in group 17 of the periodic table, such as fluorine and chlorine?

Halogens

50

Which term refers to the elements that do not combine readily with other elements because they already have eight electrons in their valence shells?

Noble gases

51

What is a device that initiates an uncontrolled chain reaction?

Atomic bomb

52

What is each row in the periodic table of the elements called? (The elements all have the same number of electron shells)

A period

53

In the periodic table of the elements, elements in the same column are called a "group". What similarities do they share?

The atoms have the same number of valence electrons.

54

What is the idea of the octet rule?

Atoms tend to react to obtain eight electrons in their valence shell.

55

Why is mercury a unique metal?

Because it is a liquid at room temperature.

56

How are nonmetals different from metals?

They are typically poor conductors of heat and electricity, look duller, and the solids are softer with low densities and melting points.

57

Semimetals (or metalloids) have what kinds of properties?

Their properties are intermediate between metals and nonmetals.

58

How do sodium and potassium help our body?

They help regulate our body fluids.

59

What is the most abundant earth metal?

Calcium

60

What kinds of metals are groups 3-12?

Transition metals

61

What is the most abundant element?

Nitrogen