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Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 7 Deck (38):
0

What is a mixture?

Several pure substances that are physically mixed but not chemically united.

1

What is the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture?

A homogeneous mixture has the same physical properties uniform throughout. A heterogeneous mixture has molecules that are not completely mixed.

2

Define solubility.

The ability of one substance to dissolve in another substance to form a solution.

3

What is a colloid?

A mixture containing tiny suspended clumps or particles.

4

What are three ways to speed up the rate at which a substance dissolves?

Increase temperature, stirring, and grinding.

5

Define solution

Mixture with molecules uniformly mixed

6

Define solute

Substance that dissolves.

7

What is a solvent?

Substance into which the solute dissolves

8

What is concentration?

Amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution.

9

Give the general term for the attractive forces that link atoms together into molecules and compounds.

Chemical bond

10

What is the most important factor affecting the formation of chemical bonds?

The number of electrons in the valence shell of each atom involved

11

What type of chemical bond results from the sharing of valence electrons between atoms?

Covalent bond

12

What is a molecule with oppositely charged ends called?

Polar molecule

13

What is the term for the simplest ratio of atoms or ions in a non-molecular compound?

Formula unit

14

In which type of chemical bond are positively charged ions attracted to negatively charged ions?

Ionic bond

15

What structure is used to represent a covalently bonded molecule?

Lewis structure.

16

What does an element's electronegativity describe?

How strongly atoms of that element pull on electrons in chemical bonds.

17

What is a nonpolar bond?

When both atoms in a covalent bond share their electrons equally; the electrons are not pulled closer to one atom than to the other.

18

What is a polar bond?

When one atom in a covalent bond has a greater electronegativity than the other.

19

What is a partial charge?

A charge less than that of a proton or electron.

20

What is the network called that consists of atoms covalently bonded into large structures that do not contain a specific number of atoms?

Covalent network

21

What is the simplest ratio of atoms in a covalent network?

Formula unit

22

What are three major types of chemical formulas?

Molecular, structural, and empirical.

23

Which type of chemical formula shows the general arrangement of atoms in a molecule?

Structural formula

24

Which type of chemical formula shows only the simplest ratio of atoms in a compound?

empirical formula

25

What formula has combinations of chemical symbols and numbers showing the type and number of atoms in each molecule?

Chemical formula

26

An ion formed from a group of atoms is a _________ ion.

polyatomic ion

27

What are orderly geometric arrangements that consist of millions or billions of ions all bonded by electrical attraction called?

ionic crystals

28

What bonding resembles covalent bonding in that electrons are shared between atoms, but different in that the valence electrons are shared by all the atoms in the metal?

metallic bonding

29

What are the forces that bind molecules together to form larger structures?

Intermolecular forces

30

What intermolecular force of attraction between polar molecules happens when the positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of another? (they are present between all polar molecules)

Dipole-dipole force

31

Name the intermolecular force that occurs between all molecules, whether polar or nonpolar. (they are the only forces that affect nonpolar molecules)

London forces

32

What bond is a particularly strong intermolecular force between certain molecules molecules containing covalently bonded hydrogen atoms? (this bond is much stronger than other intermolecular forces)

Hydrogen bond

33

How does the strength of intermolecular forces affect the melting point of a solid?

The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the melting point.

34

How does the strength of intermolecular forces affect the boiling point of a liquid?

Stronger intermolecular forces result in higher boiling points.

35

What does the rule, "like dissolves like", mean?

Polar and ionic solutes are dissolved by polar solvents, while nonpolar solutes are dissolved by nonpolar solvents.

36

What is the term describing electrons that are shared by more than two atoms?

Delocalized

37

What is the property describing how strongly atoms of an element pull on electrons in chemical bonds?

Electronegativity