Abeka Science Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 10 Deck (76):
0

What are the branches of physics developed before 1900, including mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, acoustics, and electromagnetism know as?

classical physics

1

What is the category called that includes more recent contributions such as quantum mechanics, relativity, solid-state physics, and particle physics?

modern physics

2

What type of mathematical quantity has only a magnitude (size or amount)?

Scalar quantity

3

What type of mathematical quantity has both magnitude and direction?

Vector quantity

4

The __________ traveled by an object is a scalar representing the total length of an object's path.

distance

5

_____________ is an object's change of position.

Displacement

6

How can two different vectors be combined?

Through vector addition

7

What is the answer in vector addition?

Resultant

8

How can the magnitude of the resultant be found?

By using the Pythagorean theorem.

9

What states that the square of the hypotenuse (long side of the right triangle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (short sides)?

Pythagorean theorem

10

As objects change position, they are in ________.

motion

11

What is the study of motion and forces called?

Dynamics

12

What is the branch of physics that addresses the affects of forces on matter called?

Mechanics

13

What is a measure of how quickly an object moves?

Speed

14

What is speed calculated over a distance?

Average speed

15

What can be defined mathematically as the change in position divided by time?

Velocity

16

What law states that the velocity of an object does not change unless the object is acted upon by an external force?

Newton's first law of motion (law of inertia)

17

What is the branch of mechanics called that is the study of objects at rest or in motion at constant velocity?

Statics

18

What law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction?

Newton's third law of motion

19

What law states that any two objects attract each other through gravitational force?

Newton's law of universal gravitation

20

What does capital G represent?

A fixed number called the gravitational constant.

21

Who discovered the value of G?

Henry Cavendish

22

On the earth, what is the perceived gravitational force exerted on an object?

It's weight

23

What is the gravitational froze exerted on an object near the surface of the earth or any celestial body called?

Gravity

24

Who was the first to demonstrate that the acceleration caused by the earth's gravity is independent of an object's mass?

Galileo

25

What is a fall with no effect from forces other than gravity?

Free-fall

26

What is the principle called that says a falling object will add 9.81 m/s to its speed every second it falls?

Acceleration of gravity

27

What is another name for air resistance?

Drag

28

What is the velocity at which an object stops speeding up?

Terminal velocity

29

What is the definition for centripetal?

"center-seeking"

30

What is the definition for centrifugal?

Center-fleeing

31

What is the resistance arising to an object's motion through a fluid or across a surface?

Friction

32

What are the two fundamental causes of friction?

Attraction and repulsion

33

What type of friction affects objects already in motion? It remains constant and acts to slow objects down,

Kinetic friction

34

What type of friction affects stationary objects, preventing them from moving at all?

Static friction

35

True or False:
Friction depends only on the weight of the object and the nature of the surfaces in contact.

True

36

True or False:
F sub. sf is is the minimum force that must be exerted to stop an object from moving.

False. It is the minimum force that must be exerted to start an object moving.

37

___________ is the transfer of energy from one object to another by a force.

Work

38

Define power

The rate of doing work or work per unit time.

39

True or False:
The amount of work done equals the amount of energy transferred.

True

40

True or False:
One joule equals the work performed by a 5 N force over a distance of 5 meters.

False.
One joule equals the work performed by a 1 N force over a distance of 1 meter.

41

What is power's relationship to work?

They are directly related.

42

How is power related to time?

They are inversely related.

43

What is the unit of power?

watt

44

Who was the watt named after?

James Watt

45

Name the F.P.S. unit of power that is still used in some engineering fields, though no longer used for strict scientific work.

Horse-power

46

What is another name for the "quantity of motion"?

Momentum

47

True or False:
The momentum of an object is constant unless an outside force acts upon the object.

True

48

What principle says that when the overall external force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole object remains constant?

The law of conservation of momentum

49

Is momentum the same a kinetic energy?

No.

50

What are devices for doing work?

Machines

51

What are the early force-multiplying machines called?

Simple machines

52

What is the force applied to a machine?

Input

53

What three main forms of assistance do simple machines provide?

They multiply force, they multiply distance/speed, or they change the direction of the force.

54

What does the machine modify the input into?

Its output

55

What is the measure that is the number of times a machine multiplies the input?

Mechanical advantage

56

What is AMA?

Actual mechanical advantage

57

Define efficiency

The ratio of work output to work input

58

What is one of the most versatile simple machine that multiplies force or speed without changing the direction?

The lever

59

What is the pivot upon which the beam rests called?

The fulcrum

60

In which class of levers are the input and output forces on the opposite sides of the fulcrum?

Class 1 levers

61

What is the part of the lever called from the fulcrum to the output?

The output arm

62

What is the part of the lever called from the fulcrum to the input?

The input arm

63

In what class of levers is the fulcrum at one end of the lever, the input is applied at the other end, and the output is between the input and the fulcrum?

Class 2 levers

64

In which class of levers is the fulcrum at one end of the lever, the output at the other end, and the input in between?

Class 3 levers

65

What combination can be considered a simple machine, similar to a circular lever?

A wheel and axle

66

What simple machine consists of a wheel over which a rope or cable passes?

A pulley

67

What are the three main types of pulleys?

The fixed pulley, the movable pulley, and the block and tackle.

68

What is a pulley that does not move with the load called?

A fixed pulley

69

What is a pulley that is directly attached to a moving load called?

A movable pulley

70

What is a combination of one or more fixed pulleys and one or more movable pulleys called?

A block and tackle

71

What is a sloping surface that allows and object to be raised without lifting it straight up?

An inclined plane

72

What is a special form of inclined plane that's modifies the applied force and directs it to the side?

A wedge

73

What simple machine resembles an inclined plane wrapped around a rod?

A screw

74

What is a screw operating as a jack called?

A jackscrew

75

What is the distance from one of the ridges or threads on one of the screw's shafts to the next called?

The pitch