Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 10 Deck (76):

0

## What are the branches of physics developed before 1900, including mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, acoustics, and electromagnetism know as?

### classical physics

1

## What is the category called that includes more recent contributions such as quantum mechanics, relativity, solid-state physics, and particle physics?

### modern physics

2

## What type of mathematical quantity has only a magnitude (size or amount)?

### Scalar quantity

3

## What type of mathematical quantity has both magnitude and direction?

### Vector quantity

4

## The __________ traveled by an object is a scalar representing the total length of an object's path.

### distance

5

## _____________ is an object's change of position.

### Displacement

6

## How can two different vectors be combined?

### Through vector addition

7

## What is the answer in vector addition?

### Resultant

8

## How can the magnitude of the resultant be found?

### By using the Pythagorean theorem.

9

## What states that the square of the hypotenuse (long side of the right triangle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (short sides)?

### Pythagorean theorem

10

## As objects change position, they are in ________.

### motion

11

## What is the study of motion and forces called?

### Dynamics

12

## What is the branch of physics that addresses the affects of forces on matter called?

### Mechanics

13

## What is a measure of how quickly an object moves?

### Speed

14

## What is speed calculated over a distance?

### Average speed

15

## What can be defined mathematically as the change in position divided by time?

### Velocity

16

## What law states that the velocity of an object does not change unless the object is acted upon by an external force?

### Newton's first law of motion (law of inertia)

17

## What is the branch of mechanics called that is the study of objects at rest or in motion at constant velocity?

### Statics

18

## What law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction?

### Newton's third law of motion

19

## What law states that any two objects attract each other through gravitational force?

### Newton's law of universal gravitation

20

## What does capital G represent?

### A fixed number called the gravitational constant.

21

## Who discovered the value of G?

### Henry Cavendish

22

## On the earth, what is the perceived gravitational force exerted on an object?

### It's weight

23

## What is the gravitational froze exerted on an object near the surface of the earth or any celestial body called?

### Gravity

24

## Who was the first to demonstrate that the acceleration caused by the earth's gravity is independent of an object's mass?

### Galileo

25

## What is a fall with no effect from forces other than gravity?

### Free-fall

26

## What is the principle called that says a falling object will add 9.81 m/s to its speed every second it falls?

### Acceleration of gravity

27

## What is another name for air resistance?

### Drag

28

## What is the velocity at which an object stops speeding up?

### Terminal velocity

29

## What is the definition for centripetal?

### "center-seeking"

30

## What is the definition for centrifugal?

### Center-fleeing

31

## What is the resistance arising to an object's motion through a fluid or across a surface?

### Friction

32

## What are the two fundamental causes of friction?

### Attraction and repulsion

33

## What type of friction affects objects already in motion? It remains constant and acts to slow objects down,

### Kinetic friction

34

## What type of friction affects stationary objects, preventing them from moving at all?

### Static friction

35

##
True or False:

Friction depends only on the weight of the object and the nature of the surfaces in contact.

### True

36

##
True or False:

F sub. sf is is the minimum force that must be exerted to stop an object from moving.

### False. It is the minimum force that must be exerted to start an object moving.

37

## ___________ is the transfer of energy from one object to another by a force.

### Work

38

## Define power

### The rate of doing work or work per unit time.

39

##
True or False:

The amount of work done equals the amount of energy transferred.

### True

40

##
True or False:

One joule equals the work performed by a 5 N force over a distance of 5 meters.

###
False.

One joule equals the work performed by a 1 N force over a distance of 1 meter.

41

## What is power's relationship to work?

### They are directly related.

42

## How is power related to time?

### They are inversely related.

43

## What is the unit of power?

### watt

44

## Who was the watt named after?

### James Watt

45

## Name the F.P.S. unit of power that is still used in some engineering fields, though no longer used for strict scientific work.

### Horse-power

46

## What is another name for the "quantity of motion"?

### Momentum

47

##
True or False:

The momentum of an object is constant unless an outside force acts upon the object.

### True

48

## What principle says that when the overall external force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole object remains constant?

### The law of conservation of momentum

49

## Is momentum the same a kinetic energy?

### No.

50

## What are devices for doing work?

### Machines

51

## What are the early force-multiplying machines called?

### Simple machines

52

## What is the force applied to a machine?

### Input

53

## What three main forms of assistance do simple machines provide?

### They multiply force, they multiply distance/speed, or they change the direction of the force.

54

## What does the machine modify the input into?

### Its output

55

## What is the measure that is the number of times a machine multiplies the input?

### Mechanical advantage

56

## What is AMA?

### Actual mechanical advantage

57

## Define efficiency

### The ratio of work output to work input

58

## What is one of the most versatile simple machine that multiplies force or speed without changing the direction?

### The lever

59

## What is the pivot upon which the beam rests called?

### The fulcrum

60

## In which class of levers are the input and output forces on the opposite sides of the fulcrum?

### Class 1 levers

61

## What is the part of the lever called from the fulcrum to the output?

### The output arm

62

## What is the part of the lever called from the fulcrum to the input?

### The input arm

63

## In what class of levers is the fulcrum at one end of the lever, the input is applied at the other end, and the output is between the input and the fulcrum?

### Class 2 levers

64

## In which class of levers is the fulcrum at one end of the lever, the output at the other end, and the input in between?

### Class 3 levers

65

## What combination can be considered a simple machine, similar to a circular lever?

### A wheel and axle

66

## What simple machine consists of a wheel over which a rope or cable passes?

### A pulley

67

## What are the three main types of pulleys?

### The fixed pulley, the movable pulley, and the block and tackle.

68

## What is a pulley that does not move with the load called?

### A fixed pulley

69

## What is a pulley that is directly attached to a moving load called?

### A movable pulley

70

## What is a combination of one or more fixed pulleys and one or more movable pulleys called?

### A block and tackle

71

## What is a sloping surface that allows and object to be raised without lifting it straight up?

### An inclined plane

72

## What is a special form of inclined plane that's modifies the applied force and directs it to the side?

### A wedge

73

## What simple machine resembles an inclined plane wrapped around a rod?

### A screw

74

## What is a screw operating as a jack called?

### A jackscrew

75