Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 10 Deck (76):
What are the branches of physics developed before 1900, including mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, acoustics, and electromagnetism know as?
What is the category called that includes more recent contributions such as quantum mechanics, relativity, solid-state physics, and particle physics?
What type of mathematical quantity has only a magnitude (size or amount)?
What type of mathematical quantity has both magnitude and direction?
The __________ traveled by an object is a scalar representing the total length of an object's path.
_____________ is an object's change of position.
How can two different vectors be combined?
Through vector addition
What is the answer in vector addition?
How can the magnitude of the resultant be found?
By using the Pythagorean theorem.
What states that the square of the hypotenuse (long side of the right triangle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (short sides)?
As objects change position, they are in ________.
What is the study of motion and forces called?
What is the branch of physics that addresses the affects of forces on matter called?
What is a measure of how quickly an object moves?
What is speed calculated over a distance?
What can be defined mathematically as the change in position divided by time?
What law states that the velocity of an object does not change unless the object is acted upon by an external force?
Newton's first law of motion (law of inertia)
What is the branch of mechanics called that is the study of objects at rest or in motion at constant velocity?
What law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction?
Newton's third law of motion
What law states that any two objects attract each other through gravitational force?
Newton's law of universal gravitation
What does capital G represent?
A fixed number called the gravitational constant.
Who discovered the value of G?
On the earth, what is the perceived gravitational force exerted on an object?
What is the gravitational froze exerted on an object near the surface of the earth or any celestial body called?
Who was the first to demonstrate that the acceleration caused by the earth's gravity is independent of an object's mass?
What is a fall with no effect from forces other than gravity?
What is the principle called that says a falling object will add 9.81 m/s to its speed every second it falls?
Acceleration of gravity
What is another name for air resistance?
What is the velocity at which an object stops speeding up?
What is the definition for centripetal?
What is the definition for centrifugal?
What is the resistance arising to an object's motion through a fluid or across a surface?
What are the two fundamental causes of friction?
Attraction and repulsion
What type of friction affects objects already in motion? It remains constant and acts to slow objects down,
What type of friction affects stationary objects, preventing them from moving at all?
True or False:
Friction depends only on the weight of the object and the nature of the surfaces in contact.
True or False:
F sub. sf is is the minimum force that must be exerted to stop an object from moving.
False. It is the minimum force that must be exerted to start an object moving.
___________ is the transfer of energy from one object to another by a force.
The rate of doing work or work per unit time.
True or False:
The amount of work done equals the amount of energy transferred.
True or False:
One joule equals the work performed by a 5 N force over a distance of 5 meters.
One joule equals the work performed by a 1 N force over a distance of 1 meter.
What is power's relationship to work?
They are directly related.
How is power related to time?
They are inversely related.
What is the unit of power?
Who was the watt named after?
Name the F.P.S. unit of power that is still used in some engineering fields, though no longer used for strict scientific work.
What is another name for the "quantity of motion"?
True or False:
The momentum of an object is constant unless an outside force acts upon the object.
What principle says that when the overall external force acting on a system is zero, the momentum of the whole object remains constant?
The law of conservation of momentum
Is momentum the same a kinetic energy?
What are devices for doing work?
What are the early force-multiplying machines called?
What is the force applied to a machine?
What three main forms of assistance do simple machines provide?
They multiply force, they multiply distance/speed, or they change the direction of the force.
What does the machine modify the input into?
What is the measure that is the number of times a machine multiplies the input?
What is AMA?
Actual mechanical advantage
The ratio of work output to work input
What is one of the most versatile simple machine that multiplies force or speed without changing the direction?
What is the pivot upon which the beam rests called?
In which class of levers are the input and output forces on the opposite sides of the fulcrum?
Class 1 levers
What is the part of the lever called from the fulcrum to the output?
The output arm
What is the part of the lever called from the fulcrum to the input?
The input arm
In what class of levers is the fulcrum at one end of the lever, the input is applied at the other end, and the output is between the input and the fulcrum?
Class 2 levers
In which class of levers is the fulcrum at one end of the lever, the output at the other end, and the input in between?
Class 3 levers
What combination can be considered a simple machine, similar to a circular lever?
A wheel and axle
What simple machine consists of a wheel over which a rope or cable passes?
What are the three main types of pulleys?
The fixed pulley, the movable pulley, and the block and tackle.
What is a pulley that does not move with the load called?
A fixed pulley
What is a pulley that is directly attached to a moving load called?
A movable pulley
What is a combination of one or more fixed pulleys and one or more movable pulleys called?
A block and tackle
What is a sloping surface that allows and object to be raised without lifting it straight up?
An inclined plane
What is a special form of inclined plane that's modifies the applied force and directs it to the side?
What simple machine resembles an inclined plane wrapped around a rod?
What is a screw operating as a jack called?