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Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 12 Deck (98):
0

What book did Newton publish in Which he discussed the colors and properties of light?

Optics.

1

What idea did Newton propose saying that light is a stream of tiny particles emitted by a light source?

Particle theory of light.

2

Which three men apposed Newtons particle theory and demonstrated the wave theory of light?

Robert Hooke, Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young.

3

What is the idea that light actually consists of waves, not particles?

Wave theory of light.

4

Who demonstrated that light consists of two transverse waves oscillating at right angles to each other?

James Clerk Maxwell.

5

What is it called when one rapidly oscillating electric field acts together with a magnetic field oscillating at the same frequency?

An Electromagnetic wave.

6

Who demonstrated the existence of invisible electromagnetic waves?

Heinrich Hertz.

7

What phenomenon occurs when light above a certain frequency can knock electrons loose from atoms of certain metals?

The photoelectric effect.

8

What is the theory called that states that light has both a wave nature and a particle nature?

The quantum theory of light

9

What is the property of light called that means that light has both a wave nature and a particle nature?

Wave-particle duality

10

What are the tiny packets or bundles of energy called that make up light?

Photons

11

True or False:
When interacting with matter, photons act like particles, but when traveling through space, photons act like electromagnetic waves.

True

12

What is electromagnetic waves traveling as photons?

Light

13

What are the electromagnetic waves that the human eye can perceive?

Visible light

14

What is a terahertz?

One trillion hertz

15

What are the six basic colors that compose the visible spectrum?

Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.

16

What is the range of electromagnetic waves that humans perceive as having color?

The visible spectrum

17

What color can be thought of as a mixture of the colors of light?

White

18

What is weaker white light seen as?

Gray

19

What is the absence of color?

Black

20

True or False:
A prism separates white light into its component colors by refracting the light that passes through it.

True

21

True or False:
Various combinations of red, green, and blue light can create the illusion of almost any color.

True

22

What are the additive primary colors of light?

Red, green, and blue

23

True or False:
Illusions of color can also be produced by subtracting certain colors from visible light by means of pigments.

True

24

What colors are the subtractive primary colors?

Magenta, cyan, and yellow

25

True or False:
An additive primary color always refers to pigment, and a subtractive primary color always refers to light.

False.
An additive primary color always refers to light, while a subtractive primary color always refers to pigment.

26

Can light be reflected when it strikes an obstacle?

Yes

27

Do light waves obey the law of reflection?

Yes

28

What two images can mirrors form?

A virtual image and a real image

29

What mirrors form a portion of a spherical surface?

Spherical mirrors

30

What kind of mirror is it if the reflecting side is on the inside of the spherical surface?

A concave mirror

31

What kind of mirror has the reflecting side on the outside of the spherical surface?

A convex mirror

32

What does light undergo when the path of the light waves bends when they cross the boundary between two media?

Refraction

33

How do refracted light waves resemble the other waves?

They always bend toward the medium that slows them down.

34

What is a piece of glass or other substance specifically designed to refract light?

A lens

35

What lens curves outward and causes the light rays to bend inward and converge on a point?

A convex lens

36

What kind of lens curves inward and causes light rays to bend outward, or diverge?

A concave lens.

37

What kind of illusion occurs when the light rays from a distant object are refracted by heated air so the object appears to be nearby?

A mirage

38

What does scintillation mean?

Twinkling

39

What is the name for the semicircular arc of colored bands of light in the sky?

A rainbow

40

What does it mean when waves are in phase with each other?

They have the same frequency

41

What is the process in which colors are produced by interference whe light is reflected?

Iridescence

42

What is the lighter edge surrounding the darkest part (or umbra) of most shadows?

The penumbra

43

Can light experience diffraction as it passes through a narrow slit?

Yes

44

What are the light fringes called when light diffracts?

Antinodes

45

What is a dark fringe of light called?

A node

46

What is light when it comes from a single source and in a single wave train?

Coherent light

48

What simple tool do scientists use to produce spectra in the laboratory?

A diffraction grating

49

What are two of the methods of polarization?

Polarization by reflection and polarization by selective absorption.

50

What is an arrangement of all forms of electromagnetic radiation in order of frequency and wavelength?

The electromagnetic spectrum

51

What are the low-frequency electromagnetic waves widely used for communication?

radio waves

52

By what are the lowest-frequency radio waves produced?

long wave radio transmitters

53

By what are higher-scale frequencies that are useful for international broadcasting used?

shortwave radios

54

What devices, commonly seen in the home, use frequencies higher than the shortwave radio?

television an FM radio

55

What are waves of higher frequency and shorter wavelength than radio waves?

microwaves

56

What deviceses help transmit microwave signas over long distances?

Communications satellites

57

What does GPS stand for?

Global Positioning System

58

What is another use for microwaves that uses reflected radio waves or microwaves to measure the distance and direction of faraway objects?

radar (radio detection and ranging)

59

What can determine an object's speed by measuring the Doppler-effect frequency shift of a radar beam reflected from a moving object?

Doppler radar

60

What are just above the microwaves on the frequency scale?

Infrared rays

61

What is above the infrared portion of the spectrum that is the narrow band of frequencies percieved by the human eye?

Visible light

62

What has a slightly higher frequency than visible light?

ultraviolet radiation

63

What three categories in UV commonly divided into?

UVA, UVB, and UVC

64

What occurs when the tissue of the skin is severely damaged by UV radiation?

sunburn

65

What atmospheric protector largely blocks our exposure from UVB?

ozone layer

66

What vitamin is produced when UV radiation breaks down sterols in the skin?

Vitamin D

67

Who discovered x-rays?

Wilhelm Roentgen

68

What strange form of radiation that resembel ultraviolet rays in its effect on matter but seemed to pass unhindered through wood, paper, and even human flesh?

x-rays (because x is normally used to represent something unknown)

69

What form of electromagnetic radiotion was discovered three years after the x-ray and consists of electromagnetic waves of extremely high frequency?

Gamma-rays

70

What is it called when focused beams of gamma radiation destroys cancerous tumors in a person's body?

radiotherapy

71

What devices use gamma rays to sterilize adhesice bandages and other medical supplies for both hospital and consumer use?

irradiators

72

Who showed that the energy of any electromagnetic wave is directly related to its frequency?

Max Planck

73

What does the energy of a photon depend on?

Its frequency

74

What is the process of photon emission by stimulation of already-excited atoms called?

stimulated emission

75

What does laser stand for?

light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

76

Who constructed the first laser?

Theodore H. Maiman

77

What was the first laser?

A ruby laser

78

Name the first property of laser light.

Light from a laser consists of a single frequency.

79

Name the second property f laser light.

Laser light is coherent.

80

Name the third property of laser light.

It is extremely intense compared to ordinary light.

81

What type of laser was Mr. Maiman's first laser?

optically pumped

82

What is one the best-known types of laser that is elecrically pumped and produces a a brilliant red light?

The helium-neon laser

83

What are a few commonly used lasers?

The carbon dioxide laser, the dye laser, and the gallium arsenide laser.

84

What device uses a small laser to scan microscopic expressions in a round disk to know what kind of sound to emit?

The CD player.

85

What is the technique of transmitting light through optical fibers called?

Fiber optics

86

What powerful laser was developed for military use and can produce extremely high-power beams?

The free-electron laser

87

What is a 3D imaged produced by laser light called?

A hologram

88

True or False:
In the vacuum of space, light travels at a speed of 299,792,458 m/s

True

89

Is the speed of light affected by the motion of the person or the instrument doing the measuring?

No

90

Is the speed of light in a vacuum always constant?

Yes

91

What German scientist developed the special theory of relativity?

Albert Einstein

92

What two points is the special theory of relativity based on?

All motion must be measured relative to some arbitrary reference point, and the speed of light is constant in relation to any observer.

93

What is the apparent slowdown in time for a rapidly moving object called?

Time dilation

94

What is it called when rapidly moving objects appear shorter in the direction of motion?

Lorentz contraction

95

True or False:
From the perspective of an outside observer the mass of an object moving at high speeds decreases.

False; it increases

96

True or False:
Nothing in the physical world can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum.

True

97

Which of Einstein's theories proposed that Gravity was not a mysterious force at all but a result of the geometry of space itself?

The general theory of relativity

98

True or False:
Einstein's general theory of relativity also shows that time and length are affected by gravity.

True