Abeka Biology Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 7 Deck (97):
1

What is the framework of the human body?

skeletal system

2

What system functions together with the skeletal system and nervous system to make body movements possible?

muscular system

3

What is literally the backbone of the skeletal system?

axial skeleton

4

What is the largest portion of the skull called?

cranium

5

What are the tough membranes called that connect the bones of an infant's cranium?

fontanels

6

What are the uneven lines called that join the cranial bones tightly together?

sutures

7

What 14 bones serve as the framework of the face and jaw?

facial skeleton

8

What is the only movable bone of the skull?

mandible

9

What are tissues that connect bones to other bones called?

ligaments

10

What are the hollow spaces known as in the skull bones- more specifically maxillary bones of the face?

sinuses

11

What important bone hidden in the upper neck serves as the foundation of many of the tongue muscles and swallowing muscles?

hyoid bone

12

What are the smallest bones in the body?

malleus, incus, stapes

13

What massive, column-like structure is the chief structural member of the body?

vertebral column

14

What are the 33 segments in the vertebral column called?

vertebrae

15

What is the flexible cartilage that is between the vertebrae called?

intervertebral disks

16

What is a tough, rubbery connective tissue that cushions the joints between bones?

cartilage

17

What are the seven vertebrae that form the neck called?

cervical vertebrae

18

What is the longest segment of the vertebral column made up of ?

thoracic vertebrae

19

What is the longest of all vertebrae?

lumbar vertebrae

20

What does the pelvic region consist of, which are five separate vertebrae in infants but are fused together in adults?

sacral vertebrae

21

What sits under the sacrum, consisting of four separate vertebrae in infants but are fused together in adults?

coccyx

22

What cage do the bones in the chest make up?

thoracic cage

23

What are the most prominent bones of the thoracic cage?

ribs

24

What bone attaches to the front of the ribs?

sternum

25

What are the shoulder bones collectively known as?

Pectoral girdle

26

What are the largest bones in you pectoral girdle, which connect to the sockets of the arms?

scapulae

27

What is the largest bone in that arm?

the humorous.

28

What bone is on the same side of your forearm as your little finger?

ulna

29

What bone is on the same side of your forearm as you thumb?

radius

30

What are the bones of your wrist called?

carpus

31

What bones in the hand branch out from wrist

metacarpals

32

What forms the fingers and thumb?

phalanges

33

What girdle is made up of two large, heavy bones called the pelvic bones that attach to the sacrum of the axial skeleton, forming a rigid ring of thick bone that supports most of the body's weight?

Pelvic girdle

34

What is the longest bone found in the body?

The femur

35

What is the main weight-bearing bone of the sun?

the tibia

36

What is the smaller the bone of the lower leg?

the fibula

37

What bone is found on the front of the knee?

the patella

38

What are the bones in front of the tarsals?

metatarsals

39

What is a strong cable of tough fibers that attaches a muscle to a bone?

tendon

40

What seven bones attach the tibia and fibula?

tarsal bones

41

What is another name for ankle?

tarsus

42

What bones are attached to the metatarsals?

phalanges

43

What kind of bones serve to support weight of the body and work with your muscles to provide movement?

long bones

44

What bones are nearly as wide as they are long?

Short bones. Examples include metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges.

45

What bones often have the job of protecting vital organs?

flat bones

46

Any bone that is not categorized as long, short, or flat are grouped into what group?

irregular bones.

47

What is the bone's shaft referred to as?

diaphysis

48

What are the bulging ends of a bone known as?

epiphysis

49

What is the outer shell of the bone composed of?

compact bone

50

What is the lightweight, porous tissue that replaced compact bone inside the bulged ends of a bone?

spongy bone

51

What special tissue inside the bone manufactures red and white blood cells for the body's circulatory and immune system?

red marrow

52

What is the hollow, cylindrical cavity at the bone's shaft called?

medullary cavity

53

What fatty substance replaces the red bone marrow in adults?

yellow marrow

54

What tough, resilient protein in the bone serves the same purpose as the steel rods in reinforced concrete, helping to prevent the mineral crystals from being pulled away from each other?

collagen

55

What special cells constantly move through your bones, removing old material to make room for the new?

osteoclasts

56

What special cells move into the Haversian canals behind the osteoclasts, constructing new collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite crystals as they go?

osteoblasts

57

What disease does a vitamin D efficiency cause in which the bones are weak and deformed?

rickets

58

What law states that bones adjust their shapes to the physical stress placed upon them?

Wolff's Law

59

What is the process called when cartilage is replaced with bone?

ossification

60

What is a break or crack in a bone called?

fracture

61

What type of fracture occurs when a bone cracks or breaks but does not pierce the skin?

simple fracture

62

What type of fracture occurs when the broken bone pierces through the skin?

compound fracture

63

Does a bone use scar tissue to heal?

No, it heals with its own cells.

64

What liquid lubricates the articular cartilage?

synovial fluid

65

What strong bands of fibers connective tissue hold the bones in joints together?

ligaments

66

What kind of joint allows a bone to move back and forth in a single plane?

hinge joint

67

What kind of joint allows a bone to rotate in place against another bone?

pivot joint

68

What kind of joint consists of a rounded head of one bone fitting into a hollow socket in another bone?

ball-and-socket

69

What type of joint is found in between the metacarpals and fillings that helps your fingers move left, right, up, and down?

ellipsoid joints

70

What is probably the simplest joint, in which one bone merely slides across the surface of another?

gliding joint

71

What joint is only found in your hand ?

saddle joint

72

What is a degenerative, inflamatory condition of the joints?

arthritis

73

What are some joint injuries?

sprain, dislocation, and torn ligaments.

74

What type of muscle are skeletal muscles?

voluntary muscles (because they are generally under conscious control).

75

What type of muscles are smooth an cardiac muscles?

involuntary muscles (because they are not generally under control).

76

What muscles move the skeleton?

skeletal muscles

77

What individual cells make up skeletal muscles?

muscle fibers

78

What filaments are arranged in a pattern that gives skeletal a striated appearance?

contraction filaments

79

What two muscles connect the temporal bone with the sternum and clavicles?

sternocleidomastoid

80

What muscles are located on each side of the head?

temporalis and masseter muscles

81

What is one of the most important muscles in shoulder movement?

trapezius

82

What muscles sit between the ribs and help you breath?

intercostal muscles

83

What are some of the most important muscles in your upper arm?

Pectoralis major

84

Which muscles form the curves of your shoulders, lift the upper arms away from the body, such as when you raise your hand to the sides?

Deltoids

85

What muscles connect each humorous to the lumbar region of the spine?

latissimus dorsi

86

What are probably the best known muscles of the arm?

Biceps brachii

87

what muscles are located on the back of your hand?

triceps brachii

88

What muscles also connect the ribs o the pelvis, but extend more to the sides than do the rectus abdomens muscles?

External obliques

89

What are some o the most important muscle of the back, which extend vertical along the spinalcoslumn from the upper back to the pelvis?

erector spinae

90

What are the largest and strongest muscle in the body, which pull your upper legs downward, away from the body and toward the rear?

gluteus maximus

91

What is a group of four muscles, located in the front of each thigh, that are connected to the tibia by the patellar tendon?

quadriceps femoris

92

What are a group of three muscles in the back of each thigh that work together to bend the leg at the knee?

hamstrings

93

What muscle extends diagonally downward fron the front of the pelvic bone and passes around the side of the thigh, eventually connecting to the tibia?

sartorius

94

What is the largest calf muscle, which forms the bulge on the back of your back?

gastrocnemius

95

What tough, translucent sheath covers skeletal muscles, and binds them together?

fascia

96

What is a group of muscle cells connected to a single motor neuron referred to as?

motor unit

97

What is it called when a muscle fiber is stimulated to contract, and does so completely, and then relaxes completely until another nerve impulse reaches it?

all-or-none principle