Abeka Biology Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 21 Deck (57):
1

What is the largest group of water animals on earth?

mollusks

2

What hump of a mollusk contains the internal organs?

visceral hump

3

What skin like organ which covers the visceral hump produces calcium?

mantle

4

What are the most familiar classes of mollusks?

gastropods (univalves), bivalves, and the cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and chambered nautilus.

5

How many distinct layers make up each shell of a bivalve?

three layers

6

What if formed when sheets of nacre are secreted on a foreign object in a clam?

a pearl

7

What muscles hold together the two shells of a bivalves?

adductor muscles

8

What is the opening chamber in which the gills are located?

mantle cavity

9

What siphon takes water into the mantle cavity to the gill, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged?

incurrent siphon

10

Through what siphon does the water pass out of?

excurrent siphon

11

What is another name for gastropods?

Univalve (because most of them have a single shell).

12

What gastropods look like snails with shells?

slugs

13

What sea creatures are known for their brilliant colors and exposed gills?

nudibranches

14

What rough, file-like organ in the mouth scrapes food and caries it like conveyor belt into the digestive tract?

radula

15

What is the largest invertebrate?

The giant squid.

16

What are starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, and brittle stars classified as?

echinoderms

17

What are the only animals with water-vascular system?

echinoderms

18

What projections are under each ray of a starfish which are used for holding onto things, for moving, and for opening the shells of clams and oysters?

tube feet

19

What microscopic invertebrates found in fresh water lakes and ponds, are perhaps the smallest multicellular animals?

rotifers

20

What does it mean when a female's eggs are parthenogenic?

They do not require fertilization.

21

What is a cylindrical body type which is sessile and has its mouth facing upward?

polyp

22

What is a free-swimming, umbrella-shaped body type which has its mouth facing downward?

medusa

23

What is an opening through which water leaves an organism called?

excurrent pore

24

What tiny spores are located in the sides of the animal, that water enters through?

incurrent pores

25

What cells, which line the body cavity, are named because of their unusual shape?

collar cells

26

What special cells situated within the mesoglea are crystalline support structures of the sponge?

spicules

27

What worms include earthworms, se worms, and leeches and belong to phylum annelida?

segmented worms

28

What are the four extendable and retractable bristles found on an earthworm?

setae

29

What is the circulatory system made up of in an earthworm?

Red blood, two large blood vessels, two smaller connecting blood vessels in each body segment, and ten "hearts" or aortic arches, arranged in five pairs near the earthworm's head.

30

What coiled excretory tubes are open at both ends and function like tiny kidneys?

aortic arches

31

What fleshy lobes are found in each body segment of all sea worms, and assist in movement and in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide?

parapodia

32

What coiled excretory types are open at both ends and function like tiny kidneys?

nephridia

33

What are wormlike animals with flattened bodies?

flatworms

34

What light sensitive spots are responsible for the planarian's nickname, "the cross-eyed worm"?

eyespots

35

What is the most familiar fluke?

sheepliver fluke

36

What is a liver disease prevalent in certain areas of China, Korea, Japan, and other nations of southeast Asia?

Clonorchiasis

37

What small, knoblike head is equipped with hooks and suckers that permit the tapeworm to attach itself firmly to the wall of the host's intestine?

scolex

38

What serious condition is produced by the filaria worm, which inhabits the vessels of the lymphatic system?

elephantiasis

39

What disease is caused by the trichina worm?

trichinosis

40

What tiny animal-like creatures are composed of a single cell?

protozoa

41

What membrane, which acts as a cell wall, covered a euglena, which resembles both plants and animals?

pellicle

42

How is the euglena propelled?

By its flagellum, a whiplike filament which is located on its anterior end.

43

What is the movement of the euglena called?

euglenoid movement

44

How do euglenas reproduce?

by binary fission

45

What fly transmits the African sleeping sickness?

Tsetse fly

46

What cell membrane, which means "false feet" gives the organism an ever-changing, irregular body outline?

pseudopods

47

What sickness is common in areas of the world where unsanitary conditions prevail?

amoebic dysentery

48

What protozoans produce shell made of calcium carbonate?

foraminifera

49

What are protozoa that secrete intricate shell made of silica?

radiolaria

50

What hairlike protections cover the paramecium?

cilia

51

What nucleus found in the paramecium controls the basic activities of the organism?

macronucleus

52

What nucleus found in the paramecium functions in reproduction?

micronucleus

53

What dart like structures does the paramecium shoot out when it is attacked?

trichocysts

54

What cavity of a paramecium resembles a funnel?

The mouth

55

In what type of reproduction do two paramecia exchange nuclear material, then undergo repeated divisions?

conjugation

56

What spore-forming protozoa make up almost all parasites requiring two hosts?

sporozoans

57

What infectious disease infects an estimated 300 million people each year and causes 1.5 million deaths?

malaria