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Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 8 Deck (115):
0

What is the name for a chemical change resulting from a collision between atoms and molecules?

Chemical reaction

1

What are the original substances that undergo chemical reactions?

Reactants

2

What are the substances produced by chemical reactions?

Products

3

What is an expression that uses chemical symbols to represent a chemical reaction?

Chemical equation

4

What is the number before each molecular formula in a chemical equation called?

Coefficient

5

What do scientists call the law that states that the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products?

The law of conservation of mass

6

Define chemical thermodynamics.

The study of the relationship between chemical reactions and the laws of thermodynamics.

7

What chemical reaction releases thermal energy?

Exothermic reaction

8

What kind of chemical reaction absorbs heat?

Endothermic reaction

9

What does it mean when a reaction is spontaneous?

Able to occur by itself without continuing outside help.

10

What is the kinetic energy necessary for colliding molecules to chemically react?

Activation energy

10

What factors influence how quickly a chemical reaction occurs?

Activation energy, temperature, concentration, surface area, and presence of a catalyst.

11

What is the condition in which both directions of a reversible reaction occur at the same rate?

Chemical equilibrium

12

Name the four basic categories of chemical reactions.

Combination, decomposition, single displacement, and double displacement

13

What is any ionic compound called that does not contain any hydrogen or hydroxide ion?

Salt

14

What does dissociate mean?

Breaking apart

15

What is a catalyst?

A substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently changed in the reaction.

16

What is the name for a substance that produces hydrogen cations (which are H+) when dissolved in a water solution?

An acid

17

What is a base?

Substance that produces hydroxide anions (which are OH-) when dissolved in a water solution.

18

In which chemical reaction do two or more substances combine to form a third substance?

Combination reaction (or synthesis reaction)

19

In which chemical reaction does a compound break down or decompose to form different substances?

Decomposition reaction

20

In which chemical reaction is an element in a compound replaced by another element?

Single-displacement reaction (or substitution reaction)

21

In which chemical reaction do two compounds exchange atoms or ions?

Double-displacement reaction

22

What system do chemists use to describe the relative acidity or basicity of a substance?

PH scale

23

What do chemists call it when an atom loses electrons?

Oxidation

24

What do chemists call it when an atom gains electrons?

Reduction

25

What is a "redox" (reduction oxidation)?

When electrons are transferred between atoms

26

What is an electrolytic solution?

A solution that conducts electricity.

27

What is a device designed to produce an electrochemical reaction?

An electrochemical cell

28

What branch of chemistry addresses chemical reactions that involve electric current?

Electrochemistry

29

At which electrode does oxidation take place?

The anode

30

At which electrode does reduction take place

Cathode

31

What is the process of initiating a chemical reaction with an electric current?

Electrolysis

32

Which type of electrochemical cell produces electricity through an irreversible chemical reaction?

A voltaic cell

33

What is one of the most widely used types of voltaic cell?

Dry cell

34

What kinds of cells are designed to to be recharged with electricity from an outside current source?

Storage cells

35

What kinds of cells are designed to have the reactants continually replenished from an outside source?

Fuel cells

36

Define organic chemistry

The study of compounds containing carbon

37

What are the compounds called that contain only hydrogen and carbon?

Hydrocarbons

38

How are the hydrocarbons having only single bonds between carbon atoms called?

Alkanes

39

What are the hydrocarbons containing one or more double bonds between carbon atoms called?

Alkenes

40

How are hydrocarbons with one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms classified?

Alkynes

41

Name the four electrochemical cells

Electrolytic cell, voltaic cell, fuel cell, storage cell

42

A chemical reaction that has the same number of each type of atom on each side of the arrow is said to be __________.

balanced

43

What are the hydrocarbons called that have a cyclic structure with electrons that are delocalized? They have a pleasant smell.

Aromatic compounds

44

What are hydrocarbons that have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced with different atoms or groups of atoms called?

Substituted hydrocarbons

45

What is a group of atoms capable of replacing a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon called?

A functional group

46

What are alkanes with one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms called?

Haloalkanes

47

What is an organic compound with one or more hydrogen atoms replaced with an -OH group called?

An alcohol

48

What are organic compounds containing the functional group
0
|| Carboxyl group
C
/ \
OH Called?

Carboxylic acid

49

True or false: reduction occurs at the anode.

No, the cathode

50

What is the solute in an electrolytic solution called?

Electrolyte

51

What cell is the most widely used voltaic cell?

Dry cell

52

What carbon molecules, also known as buckyballs, are shaped in a soccer ball pattern?

Fullerene

53

What organic compound contains carboxyl group with a hydrocarbon chain replacing the hydrogen?

Ester

54

What is the name for a salt containing a carboxylate ion?

Soap

55

What are organic compounds similar to soap but capable of cleaning even in hard water?

Detergents

56

What is the technical definition of polymers?

Many small parts

57

What is the name for a huge organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules?

Polymer

58

What is the name for the smaller molecules that polymers are made up of?

Monomers

59

How are polymers produced?

Through a process called polymerization.

60

When naming a hydrocarbon, what two things matter the most?

The number of carbons and what kinds of bonds between them.

61

In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there is only one carbon atom?

Meth-

62

In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are two carbon atoms?

Eth-

63

In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are three carbon atoms?

Prop-

64

In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are four carbon atoms?

But- (bute)

65

In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are five carbon atoms?

Pent-

66

In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are six carbon atoms?

Hex-

67

What is the study of the chemistry of living things?

Biochemistry

68

What are relatively small carbohydrates containing up to about ten rings of atoms?

Sugars

69

Which carbohydrates have only one ring of atoms per molecule and are also known as simple sugars?

Monosaccharides

70

When two molecules of a monosaccharide link together, what is the bigger molecule called?

Disaccharide

71

When many monosaccharides link together, what is the bigger molecule they make called?

Polysaccharides

72

Name two common polysaccharides that are used for food storage.

Starches and glycogen

73

Name the polysaccharide that forms the walls of plant cells and gives plants and trees their rigid structure.

Cellulose

74

What is the substituted hydrocarbon called that has a functional group of COOH?

Carboxylic acid

75

What is the substituted hydrocarbon called that has a functional group of COO?

Esters

76

What is a group of biological compounds that are characterized by insolubility in water?

Lipids

77

What are the simplest lipid molecules?

Fatty acids

78

What are the combined fatty acids in cells called?

Fats

79

What state is a saturated fat at room temperature?

Solid

80

At room temperature, which fats are liquid?

Unsaturated fats

81

What kind of lipid is used by our body to make bile, vitamin D, cell membranes, and important chemical messengers called hormones?

Cholesterol

82

What does LDL stand for?

Low density lipoprotein

83

What does the abbreviation HDL stand for?

High density lipoprotein

84

What are complex organic molecules used to build and maintain living cells?

Proteins

85

The many types of proteins in the body are all polymers of smaller compounds called ____________.

Amino acids

86

What is the area of chemistry called that addresses the rates of chemical reactions?

Chemical kinetics

87

Name the globules of cholesterol encased in a membrane made of lipids and proteins.

Lipoproteins

88

Name the compounds that provide most of the energy for living things.

Carbohydrates

89

What is a peptide bond?

The bond that links Amino acids together into proteins.

90

What are the two categories of proteins?

Fibrous proteins, and globular proteins.

91

What kinds of protein remain fairly straight after completion?(for example hair, fingernails, toenails.)

Fibrous proteins.

92

What kind of proteins fold up on themselves and lock into place when they reach the proper size? Their molecules have intricate 3D shape.

Globular proteins.

93

Name the special globular proteins that initiate or regulate chemical reactions within the cell.

Enzymes.

94

What is the class of chemicals that contains the plans or blueprints that guide the construction of all proteins in the cell?

Nucleic acid.

95

What are the largest molecules in cells that contain the information of the cell?

Deoxyribonucleic acid.(DNA)

96

What is the twisted ladder pattern of DNA called?

Double helix (helix means spiral)

97

Name the four different types of bases in a DNA molecule.

Guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine

98

A segment of DNA-containing code for a specific substance, task, or characteristic is a _________.

Gene

99

What does it mean when a cell transcribes the DNA segment containing the code for a certain protein?

They make a copy of it

100

What is the "working copy" of genetic information called?

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

101

What is the process called in which the mitochondria burn glucose called?

Cellular respiration

102

What is the name for the energy carrier of the cell and a form of temporary storage of chemical energy?

ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)

103

What are the 5 ways that DNA is important?

1. It is found in every cell of every living organism
2. It determines the form and function of every cell of an organism
3. It directs the construction of new cells
4. It directs how new cells are put together during the growth of an organism or the repair of damaged tissue
5. It controls heredity (the passing of traits from one generation to the next)

104

Name the two by-products of cellular respiration.

Carbon dioxide and water

105

Define metabolism

The process by which the body produces and uses energy from food.

106

Name the principle that stated that when equilibrium is disturbed the system will react to offset the disturbance.

Le Châtelier's principle

107

What does an arrow mean in a chemical equation?

"Yields"

108

What is the most widely abused drug today?

Alcohol.

109

What kind of a drug is alcohol?

A depressant.

110

Name the life-threatening condition that comes from alcohol.

Alcohol poisoning.

111

Name the syndrome that happens when a heavy user obtains from alcohol. He may begin to sweat a lot, talk unclearly, and suffer from hallucinations.

Delirium tremens. (DTs)

113

What is the condition called where large numbers of liver cells die and are replaced by scar tissue?

Cirrhosis.

114

Name the condition that occurs when the liver cells begin to die, and the liver becomes enflamed due to continued alcohol abuse.

Alcoholic hepatitis.