Flashcards in Abeka Science Chapter 8 Deck (115):
What is the name for a chemical change resulting from a collision between atoms and molecules?
What are the original substances that undergo chemical reactions?
What are the substances produced by chemical reactions?
What is an expression that uses chemical symbols to represent a chemical reaction?
What is the number before each molecular formula in a chemical equation called?
What do scientists call the law that states that the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products?
The law of conservation of mass
Define chemical thermodynamics.
The study of the relationship between chemical reactions and the laws of thermodynamics.
What chemical reaction releases thermal energy?
What kind of chemical reaction absorbs heat?
What does it mean when a reaction is spontaneous?
Able to occur by itself without continuing outside help.
What is the kinetic energy necessary for colliding molecules to chemically react?
What factors influence how quickly a chemical reaction occurs?
Activation energy, temperature, concentration, surface area, and presence of a catalyst.
What is the condition in which both directions of a reversible reaction occur at the same rate?
Name the four basic categories of chemical reactions.
Combination, decomposition, single displacement, and double displacement
What is any ionic compound called that does not contain any hydrogen or hydroxide ion?
What does dissociate mean?
What is a catalyst?
A substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently changed in the reaction.
What is the name for a substance that produces hydrogen cations (which are H+) when dissolved in a water solution?
What is a base?
Substance that produces hydroxide anions (which are OH-) when dissolved in a water solution.
In which chemical reaction do two or more substances combine to form a third substance?
Combination reaction (or synthesis reaction)
In which chemical reaction does a compound break down or decompose to form different substances?
In which chemical reaction is an element in a compound replaced by another element?
Single-displacement reaction (or substitution reaction)
In which chemical reaction do two compounds exchange atoms or ions?
What system do chemists use to describe the relative acidity or basicity of a substance?
What do chemists call it when an atom loses electrons?
What do chemists call it when an atom gains electrons?
What is a "redox" (reduction oxidation)?
When electrons are transferred between atoms
What is an electrolytic solution?
A solution that conducts electricity.
What is a device designed to produce an electrochemical reaction?
An electrochemical cell
What branch of chemistry addresses chemical reactions that involve electric current?
At which electrode does oxidation take place?
At which electrode does reduction take place
What is the process of initiating a chemical reaction with an electric current?
Which type of electrochemical cell produces electricity through an irreversible chemical reaction?
A voltaic cell
What is one of the most widely used types of voltaic cell?
What kinds of cells are designed to to be recharged with electricity from an outside current source?
What kinds of cells are designed to have the reactants continually replenished from an outside source?
Define organic chemistry
The study of compounds containing carbon
What are the compounds called that contain only hydrogen and carbon?
How are the hydrocarbons having only single bonds between carbon atoms called?
What are the hydrocarbons containing one or more double bonds between carbon atoms called?
How are hydrocarbons with one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms classified?
Name the four electrochemical cells
Electrolytic cell, voltaic cell, fuel cell, storage cell
A chemical reaction that has the same number of each type of atom on each side of the arrow is said to be __________.
What are the hydrocarbons called that have a cyclic structure with electrons that are delocalized? They have a pleasant smell.
What are hydrocarbons that have one or more hydrogen atoms replaced with different atoms or groups of atoms called?
What is a group of atoms capable of replacing a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon called?
A functional group
What are alkanes with one or more hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms called?
What is an organic compound with one or more hydrogen atoms replaced with an -OH group called?
What are organic compounds containing the functional group
|| Carboxyl group
True or false: reduction occurs at the anode.
No, the cathode
What is the solute in an electrolytic solution called?
What cell is the most widely used voltaic cell?
What carbon molecules, also known as buckyballs, are shaped in a soccer ball pattern?
What organic compound contains carboxyl group with a hydrocarbon chain replacing the hydrogen?
What is the name for a salt containing a carboxylate ion?
What are organic compounds similar to soap but capable of cleaning even in hard water?
What is the technical definition of polymers?
Many small parts
What is the name for a huge organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules?
What is the name for the smaller molecules that polymers are made up of?
How are polymers produced?
Through a process called polymerization.
When naming a hydrocarbon, what two things matter the most?
The number of carbons and what kinds of bonds between them.
In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there is only one carbon atom?
In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are two carbon atoms?
In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are three carbon atoms?
In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are four carbon atoms?
In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are five carbon atoms?
In a hydrocarbon, what would the prefix be when there are six carbon atoms?
What is the study of the chemistry of living things?
What are relatively small carbohydrates containing up to about ten rings of atoms?
Which carbohydrates have only one ring of atoms per molecule and are also known as simple sugars?
When two molecules of a monosaccharide link together, what is the bigger molecule called?
When many monosaccharides link together, what is the bigger molecule they make called?
Name two common polysaccharides that are used for food storage.
Starches and glycogen
Name the polysaccharide that forms the walls of plant cells and gives plants and trees their rigid structure.
What is the substituted hydrocarbon called that has a functional group of COOH?
What is the substituted hydrocarbon called that has a functional group of COO?
What is a group of biological compounds that are characterized by insolubility in water?
What are the simplest lipid molecules?
What are the combined fatty acids in cells called?
What state is a saturated fat at room temperature?
At room temperature, which fats are liquid?
What kind of lipid is used by our body to make bile, vitamin D, cell membranes, and important chemical messengers called hormones?
What does LDL stand for?
Low density lipoprotein
What does the abbreviation HDL stand for?
High density lipoprotein
What are complex organic molecules used to build and maintain living cells?
The many types of proteins in the body are all polymers of smaller compounds called ____________.
What is the area of chemistry called that addresses the rates of chemical reactions?
Name the globules of cholesterol encased in a membrane made of lipids and proteins.
Name the compounds that provide most of the energy for living things.
What is a peptide bond?
The bond that links Amino acids together into proteins.
What are the two categories of proteins?
Fibrous proteins, and globular proteins.
What kinds of protein remain fairly straight after completion?(for example hair, fingernails, toenails.)
What kind of proteins fold up on themselves and lock into place when they reach the proper size? Their molecules have intricate 3D shape.
Name the special globular proteins that initiate or regulate chemical reactions within the cell.
What is the class of chemicals that contains the plans or blueprints that guide the construction of all proteins in the cell?
What are the largest molecules in cells that contain the information of the cell?
What is the twisted ladder pattern of DNA called?
Double helix (helix means spiral)
Name the four different types of bases in a DNA molecule.
Guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine
A segment of DNA-containing code for a specific substance, task, or characteristic is a _________.
What does it mean when a cell transcribes the DNA segment containing the code for a certain protein?
They make a copy of it
What is the "working copy" of genetic information called?
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
What is the process called in which the mitochondria burn glucose called?
What is the name for the energy carrier of the cell and a form of temporary storage of chemical energy?
ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)
What are the 5 ways that DNA is important?
1. It is found in every cell of every living organism
2. It determines the form and function of every cell of an organism
3. It directs the construction of new cells
4. It directs how new cells are put together during the growth of an organism or the repair of damaged tissue
5. It controls heredity (the passing of traits from one generation to the next)
Name the two by-products of cellular respiration.
Carbon dioxide and water
The process by which the body produces and uses energy from food.
Name the principle that stated that when equilibrium is disturbed the system will react to offset the disturbance.
Le Châtelier's principle
What does an arrow mean in a chemical equation?
What is the most widely abused drug today?
What kind of a drug is alcohol?
Name the life-threatening condition that comes from alcohol.
Name the syndrome that happens when a heavy user obtains from alcohol. He may begin to sweat a lot, talk unclearly, and suffer from hallucinations.
Delirium tremens. (DTs)
What is the condition called where large numbers of liver cells die and are replaced by scar tissue?