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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 4 Deck (73):
1

What are the parts of stems which allow it to grow in length or develop new stems, flowers, or leaves?

buds

2

What covers the bud in winter which protects the bud from frost injury of drying out?

bud scales

3

What indicates where last year's growth started?

the bud-scale scars

4

What reveal where leaves were attached to the stem in previous years?

leaf scars

5

What do botanists call the section of the twig between nodes?

internodes

6

What indicates the passage of points of vascular tissue from the stem to the petiole of the leaf?

bundle scars.

7

What openings in the bark allows air to enter the stem, providing means of respiration?

lenticels

8

What bud of a stem produces hormones that control the growth of the lateral buds?

terminals buds

9

How is the branching on trees with strong terminal buds on the main vertical stem that grow tall and straight with branches coming from a large central shaft described?

spire-like branching

10

How is the branching on trees with strong lateral buds that develop several main branches, usually rather close to the ground?

spreading branching

11

What is the outer section of a woody stem called that provides protection for the stem and helps transport food throughout the plant?

bark

12

What food-conducting tubes do phloem cells form when they are connected end-to-end?

sieve tubes

13

What is the strong inner section of a woody stem called?

wood

14

What kind of cells are found in the xylem and are long and tapered?

tracheids

15

What is a second type of vessel found in broadleaf trees that is larger than a tracheid?

vessels

16

What do the xylem and phloem form>

vascular tissue

17

What are the hollow tubes with perforated plates found in the phloem called?

sieve tubes

18

What is at the center of a woody stem in a young plant?

pith

19

What do the oldest xylem tubes near the center of the tree that become clogged and are sealed off and no longer conduct sap form in older trees? It supports the stem.

heartwood

20

What is the young functioning tissue that conducts water and minerals from the roots to the leaves called?

sapwood

21

What is the growth in width called?

secondary growth

22

What are the layers of xylem that result from periods of faster and slower growth called?

annual growth rings

23

True or false:
One layer of spring and summer wood taken together makes up a single annual growth ring.

True

24

What aspect of the wood do the two areas of light spring and dark summer wood make?

the grain

25

What kind of stems have soft tissues and generally live for only one growing season?

herbaceous stems

26

What do the xylem and phloem cells form in a herbaceous stem?

vascular bundles

27

What is the tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded called?

cortex

28

What is the outside part of a monocot called?

rind

29

What happens when a new plant starts to grow from a stem or root or leaf?

vegetative reproduction

30

What is asexual reproduction?

When a plant grows without a sperm and egg uniting.

31

What process occurs when a person uses vegetative reproduction methods to start a new plant from a root, stem, or leaf?

vegetative propagation

32

What is a piece of a stem or root which is capable of growing into a new plant called?

A cutting

33

What roots grow from an unexpected region on the plant, such as from a stem or leaf?

Adventitious roots

34

What process takes advantage of the fact that certain plants will sprout adventitious roots, and provides the same advantages of as the use of cutting?

Layering

35

What is the process of transplanting living tissue from one plant to another?

Grafting

36

What is the branch called which is to be grafted onto a stem?

scion

37

What is the tree which receives a new stem through grafting called?

stock

38

What is the kind of grafting in which the scion is a bud?

Budding

39

What is the tropism called when a plant grows toward light?

phototropism

40

What is the tropism called when a plant will grow away from or towards gravity?

geotropism

41

What is the tropism called when a plant grows towards chemicals?

chemotropism

42

What is the tropism called when a plant grows towards water?

hydrotropism

43

What is the tropism called when a plant grows towards touch?

thigmotropism

44

What hormones are growth hormones secreted by the tip of shoots? They are involved in many tropisms and stimulate root growth and fruit formation, and prevent the development of lateral buds?

Auxins

45

What hormones are growth hormones that affect stem growth, and stimulate lateral buds to grow into new shoots?

cytokinins

46

What are growth hormones that help to regulate normal plant growth?

gibberellins

47

What hormone triggers plant hormones to remain dormant?

abscisic acid

48

What special stem and leaves is designed to store food?

a bulb

49

What special stem is like a bulb but has a thicker stem and thinner leaves?

a corm

50

What thick stems grow horizontally under the ground, providing food storage and a means of vegetative reproduction?

rhizomes

51

What special stems grow quickly along the surface of the ground to produce new plants wherever a node touches the soil?

stolons (runners)

52

What stem, when in contact with a surface such as a fence or a wall, will wrap itself around the object?

a tendril

53

What special stem has eyes and is commonly mistaken for a root? A potato is an example of one.

tuber

54

What special stems protect the plant?

thorns

55

What kind of roots penetrate the soil with relatively little branching?

taproots (primary roots)

56

What kind of roots have no main section but spread out with very thin roots, forming a tangled mass in shallow soil?

fibrous roots

57

What kind of taproots enlarge to store large quantities of foods?

fleshy roots

58

What epidermal cells develop into long, fingerlike projections and great increase the water-absorbing surface area of a root?

root hairs

59

What region of the root, found inside of the epidermis, stores food?

root cortex

60

Study the parts of the root.

......

61

What results in growth in length for the root (primary growth)?

increase of meristematic cells

62

What is the region closest to the end if the root called?

meristematic region

63

What region is just above the meristematic region?

region of elongation

64

What is the third region of growth, in which cells organize into the vascular cylinder?

Maturation region

65

What is at the tip of the root that provides a protective covering?

root cap

66

What kinds of roots do not develop from buds, but rather from the central vascular cylinder of a root?

lateral roots

67

What is the process of mixing molecules of one substance trough another by random molecular motion? It always occurs from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.

diffusion

68

What is one-way diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane?

osmosis

69

What is the upward movement of liquids through a very small tube called?

capillarity

70

What is the force that holds water particles together?

adhesion

71

What is the force that causes water to stick to the walls of narrow tubes called?

cohesion

72

How is water raised in plants?

We do not know.

73

What is the upward flow of fluids through the xylem tubes called?

sap stream