Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 4 Deck (73):
What are the parts of stems which allow it to grow in length or develop new stems, flowers, or leaves?
What covers the bud in winter which protects the bud from frost injury of drying out?
What indicates where last year's growth started?
the bud-scale scars
What reveal where leaves were attached to the stem in previous years?
What do botanists call the section of the twig between nodes?
What indicates the passage of points of vascular tissue from the stem to the petiole of the leaf?
What openings in the bark allows air to enter the stem, providing means of respiration?
What bud of a stem produces hormones that control the growth of the lateral buds?
How is the branching on trees with strong terminal buds on the main vertical stem that grow tall and straight with branches coming from a large central shaft described?
How is the branching on trees with strong lateral buds that develop several main branches, usually rather close to the ground?
What is the outer section of a woody stem called that provides protection for the stem and helps transport food throughout the plant?
What food-conducting tubes do phloem cells form when they are connected end-to-end?
What is the strong inner section of a woody stem called?
What kind of cells are found in the xylem and are long and tapered?
What is a second type of vessel found in broadleaf trees that is larger than a tracheid?
What do the xylem and phloem form>
What are the hollow tubes with perforated plates found in the phloem called?
What is at the center of a woody stem in a young plant?
What do the oldest xylem tubes near the center of the tree that become clogged and are sealed off and no longer conduct sap form in older trees? It supports the stem.
What is the young functioning tissue that conducts water and minerals from the roots to the leaves called?
What is the growth in width called?
What are the layers of xylem that result from periods of faster and slower growth called?
annual growth rings
True or false:
One layer of spring and summer wood taken together makes up a single annual growth ring.
What aspect of the wood do the two areas of light spring and dark summer wood make?
What kind of stems have soft tissues and generally live for only one growing season?
What do the xylem and phloem cells form in a herbaceous stem?
What is the tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded called?
What is the outside part of a monocot called?
What happens when a new plant starts to grow from a stem or root or leaf?
What is asexual reproduction?
When a plant grows without a sperm and egg uniting.
What process occurs when a person uses vegetative reproduction methods to start a new plant from a root, stem, or leaf?
What is a piece of a stem or root which is capable of growing into a new plant called?
What roots grow from an unexpected region on the plant, such as from a stem or leaf?
What process takes advantage of the fact that certain plants will sprout adventitious roots, and provides the same advantages of as the use of cutting?
What is the process of transplanting living tissue from one plant to another?
What is the branch called which is to be grafted onto a stem?
What is the tree which receives a new stem through grafting called?
What is the kind of grafting in which the scion is a bud?
What is the tropism called when a plant grows toward light?
What is the tropism called when a plant will grow away from or towards gravity?
What is the tropism called when a plant grows towards chemicals?
What is the tropism called when a plant grows towards water?
What is the tropism called when a plant grows towards touch?
What hormones are growth hormones secreted by the tip of shoots? They are involved in many tropisms and stimulate root growth and fruit formation, and prevent the development of lateral buds?
What hormones are growth hormones that affect stem growth, and stimulate lateral buds to grow into new shoots?
What are growth hormones that help to regulate normal plant growth?
What hormone triggers plant hormones to remain dormant?
What special stem and leaves is designed to store food?
What special stem is like a bulb but has a thicker stem and thinner leaves?
What thick stems grow horizontally under the ground, providing food storage and a means of vegetative reproduction?
What special stems grow quickly along the surface of the ground to produce new plants wherever a node touches the soil?
What stem, when in contact with a surface such as a fence or a wall, will wrap itself around the object?
What special stem has eyes and is commonly mistaken for a root? A potato is an example of one.
What special stems protect the plant?
What kind of roots penetrate the soil with relatively little branching?
taproots (primary roots)
What kind of roots have no main section but spread out with very thin roots, forming a tangled mass in shallow soil?
What kind of taproots enlarge to store large quantities of foods?
What epidermal cells develop into long, fingerlike projections and great increase the water-absorbing surface area of a root?
What region of the root, found inside of the epidermis, stores food?
Study the parts of the root.
What results in growth in length for the root (primary growth)?
increase of meristematic cells
What is the region closest to the end if the root called?
What region is just above the meristematic region?
region of elongation
What is the third region of growth, in which cells organize into the vascular cylinder?
What is at the tip of the root that provides a protective covering?
What kinds of roots do not develop from buds, but rather from the central vascular cylinder of a root?
What is the process of mixing molecules of one substance trough another by random molecular motion? It always occurs from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
What is one-way diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane?
What is the upward movement of liquids through a very small tube called?
What is the force that holds water particles together?
What is the force that causes water to stick to the walls of narrow tubes called?
How is water raised in plants?
We do not know.