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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 5 Deck (81):
1

What is the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities called?

taxonomy

2

Who devised a simple, practical method of classification for use by scientists?

Carolus Linnaeaus

3

What English clergyman devoted much of his time to natural studies and became very well known for his work with plants?

John Ray

4

What did Linnaeaus base his classification system on?

basic body structure and arrangements of reproductive organs in plants

5

What are the main divisons called in which all living things are grouped into?

kingdoms

6

Name the seven categories of classification of living things.

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

7

What were the first two main kingdoms?

Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia

8

What languages did Linnaeaus use to name organisms?

Latin and Latinized Greek

9

What is Linnaeaus' system for assigning a scientific name known as?

binomial system of nomenclature

10

What does the first word of the scientific name indicate?

genus

11

What does the second word of the scientific name indicate?

species

12

What are the six kingdoms?

Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi, Eubacteria, Achaebacteria

13

What is the biblical word that means a group of similar organisms that interbreed freely in nature?

kind

14

What is a group of very similar organisms that interbreeds freely in nature called?

species

15

What word describes evolutionary relationships scientists have devised?

hypothetical

16

All organisms are placed into one of three large ______.

domains

17

Name the 3 domains and roughly what they include.

Bacteria (true bacteria), Archaea (bacteria that live in extreme environments, Eukarya (animals, plants, protists, fungi)

18

Are angiosperms in the phylum Anthophyta part of the vascular plants?

yes

19

True or false:
All plants are either vascular plants or nonvascular plants.

True

20

What are the two main divisions of Kingdom Plantae?

Vascular and nonvascular plants

21

What are the two groups of vascular plants?

Seed plants and nonsked plants

22

What are plants that do not produce flowers but do produce seeds called?

gymnosperms

23

What is special about gymnosperm seeds?

They are not covered by the walls of an ovary.

24

What do gymnosperms produce to protect the seeds?

cones or conelike structures

25

What are the three main groups of living gymnosperms?

conifers, cycads, ginko trees

26

What familiar cone-bearing gymnosperms include pines, spruces, firs, cedars, etc.?

Conifers

27

What is the process through which conifers, using both sexual and asexual stages, reproduce?

alternation of generations

28

What are the two types of cones produced by conifers?

staminate (pollen-producing) and ovulate cones (seed-producing)

29

What are tiny, one-celled reproductive structures that are capable of growing into distinct or independent organisms under the proper condition?

Spores

30

What large leaves on ferns grow upward by unrolling from "fiddleheads".

fronds

31

What brownish dots found on the fern leaves are really groups of minute spore cases called sporangia?

sori

32

What stems from the fern grows underground?

rhizomes

33

What are creeping vascular plants with erect stems that bear spores in club-shaped, bonelike structures?

club mosses

34

What is a typical club moss with horizontal stems which trail along the ground or grow just below the surface?

Lycopodium

35

What are vascular plants with unique hollow, jointed stems and very small leaves present only on the joint?

Horsetail.

36

What name literally means "mosslike plants"?

bryophytea

37

Instead of roots, a moss has tiny hairlike threads called what?

rhizoids

38

What kind of moss is especially helpful in preventing erosion and has high water-storage capabilities and antiseptic qualities?

peat moss

39

What is peat moss a component of when decayed?

peat

40

What are the various partially decayed plant materials called that collect in swamps and marshes?

peat marshes

41

Are liverworts nonvascular plants?

yes

42

What is the smallest of the green, chlorophyll-containing organisms called that are the major producers of food in aquatic environments?

algae

43

What are microorganisms that float near the surface of the water and provide food for larger animals called?

plankton

44

What are the differently sized and shaped groups called in which some single-celled green algae make up?

colonies

45

What are the hair-like structures formed by some green algae referred to as?

filaments

46

What unicellular green alga Chlorella is one of the most important green algae because it has been widely used in the study of photosynthesis?

Chlorella

47

What unicellular green algae is unique because it possesses two distinctly animal-like characteristics, flagella and stigma?

Chlamydomonas

48

What are a large group of freshwater green algae?

Desmids

49

What is an example of unicellular algae which live in large colonies of hundreds or thousands of individual cells?

Volvox

50

What have been used in biological laboratories for many types of scientific investigations?

Spirogyra

51

What are the most numerous and most interesting of the yellow algae?

diatoms

52

What do diatoms have that are composed if silica?

rigid cell walls

53

The cell wall is made of two almost equal halves called what?

valves

54

What is the largest of the brown agae, and grows in both Atlantic n Pacific oceans?

Kelps

55

What gummy substance derives from kelp, can hold several different liquids together in an emulsion?

Algin

56

What type of brown algae is attached to rocks along the seashore?

rockweeds

57

What type of brown algae gives the Sargasso Sea its name?

Gulfweeds. (of the genus "sargassum")

58

What species of red algae is a gelatinous substance used in many food products?

Carrageenan

59

What gelling agent is also derrived from red algae?

Agar

60

What species of red algae are edible?

Dulse

61

What did the Japanese call dulse?

Nori

62

What subphylum are blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) catagorized in because of their cellular structure?

Cyanophyla

63

What are microscopic, one-celled, aquatic organisms found on both fresh water ans salt water?

dinoflagellates

64

What is the most common dinoflagellates?

red tide

65

What are some examples of fungi?

Toadstools, shelf fungi, mold, athletes foot.

66

What does it mean when a fungi is saprophytes?

They obtain their nutrition from dead organisms.

67

What are the threadlike structures, or filaments, which form the body of a fungus?

hyphae

68

What are scientists called that study fungi?

mycologists

69

What is the mass of hyphae called that forms the main body of a fungi?

mycelium

70

What are autotrophs?

Green plants that manufacture their own food.

71

What are heterotrophs?

Organisms that must obtain their food from sources outside themselves.

72

What are the spores in microscopic club-shaped structures produced by fungi called?

basidia

73

What umbrella-shaped, spore-forming structure grows quickly into the air in the reproduction of mushrooms?

fruiting body

74

What does the fruiting body contain that radiates from the stalk like spokes on a wheel?

gills

75

What fungi are often found growing on trees or rotting logs?

Bracket or shelf fungi.

76

What do you call parasitic club fungi, which do millions of dollars worth of damage to crops each year?

rusts and smuts.

77

What What does it mean when a rust is an alternate parasite?

It means that in needs two hosts in order to complete its lifecycle.

78

What produce masses of black spores in their hosts?

smuts

79

What mold is a miniature jungle of fine, shiny, white hyphae?

bread mold

80

How is cheese formed?

Cheese is formed by bacteria and molds.

81

What i a small, colorless, single-celled organism which feeds on foods containing sugar, converting sugar into alchohol and carbon dioxide?

yeast fungi