Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 5 Deck (81):
What is the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities called?
Who devised a simple, practical method of classification for use by scientists?
What English clergyman devoted much of his time to natural studies and became very well known for his work with plants?
What did Linnaeaus base his classification system on?
basic body structure and arrangements of reproductive organs in plants
What are the main divisons called in which all living things are grouped into?
Name the seven categories of classification of living things.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What were the first two main kingdoms?
Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia
What languages did Linnaeaus use to name organisms?
Latin and Latinized Greek
What is Linnaeaus' system for assigning a scientific name known as?
binomial system of nomenclature
What does the first word of the scientific name indicate?
What does the second word of the scientific name indicate?
What are the six kingdoms?
Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi, Eubacteria, Achaebacteria
What is the biblical word that means a group of similar organisms that interbreed freely in nature?
What is a group of very similar organisms that interbreeds freely in nature called?
What word describes evolutionary relationships scientists have devised?
All organisms are placed into one of three large ______.
Name the 3 domains and roughly what they include.
Bacteria (true bacteria), Archaea (bacteria that live in extreme environments, Eukarya (animals, plants, protists, fungi)
Are angiosperms in the phylum Anthophyta part of the vascular plants?
True or false:
All plants are either vascular plants or nonvascular plants.
What are the two main divisions of Kingdom Plantae?
Vascular and nonvascular plants
What are the two groups of vascular plants?
Seed plants and nonsked plants
What are plants that do not produce flowers but do produce seeds called?
What is special about gymnosperm seeds?
They are not covered by the walls of an ovary.
What do gymnosperms produce to protect the seeds?
cones or conelike structures
What are the three main groups of living gymnosperms?
conifers, cycads, ginko trees
What familiar cone-bearing gymnosperms include pines, spruces, firs, cedars, etc.?
What is the process through which conifers, using both sexual and asexual stages, reproduce?
alternation of generations
What are the two types of cones produced by conifers?
staminate (pollen-producing) and ovulate cones (seed-producing)
What are tiny, one-celled reproductive structures that are capable of growing into distinct or independent organisms under the proper condition?
What large leaves on ferns grow upward by unrolling from "fiddleheads".
What brownish dots found on the fern leaves are really groups of minute spore cases called sporangia?
What stems from the fern grows underground?
What are creeping vascular plants with erect stems that bear spores in club-shaped, bonelike structures?
What is a typical club moss with horizontal stems which trail along the ground or grow just below the surface?
What are vascular plants with unique hollow, jointed stems and very small leaves present only on the joint?
What name literally means "mosslike plants"?
Instead of roots, a moss has tiny hairlike threads called what?
What kind of moss is especially helpful in preventing erosion and has high water-storage capabilities and antiseptic qualities?
What is peat moss a component of when decayed?
What are the various partially decayed plant materials called that collect in swamps and marshes?
Are liverworts nonvascular plants?
What is the smallest of the green, chlorophyll-containing organisms called that are the major producers of food in aquatic environments?
What are microorganisms that float near the surface of the water and provide food for larger animals called?
What are the differently sized and shaped groups called in which some single-celled green algae make up?
What are the hair-like structures formed by some green algae referred to as?
What unicellular green alga Chlorella is one of the most important green algae because it has been widely used in the study of photosynthesis?
What unicellular green algae is unique because it possesses two distinctly animal-like characteristics, flagella and stigma?
What are a large group of freshwater green algae?
What is an example of unicellular algae which live in large colonies of hundreds or thousands of individual cells?
What have been used in biological laboratories for many types of scientific investigations?
What are the most numerous and most interesting of the yellow algae?
What do diatoms have that are composed if silica?
rigid cell walls
The cell wall is made of two almost equal halves called what?
What is the largest of the brown agae, and grows in both Atlantic n Pacific oceans?
What gummy substance derives from kelp, can hold several different liquids together in an emulsion?
What type of brown algae is attached to rocks along the seashore?
What type of brown algae gives the Sargasso Sea its name?
Gulfweeds. (of the genus "sargassum")
What species of red algae is a gelatinous substance used in many food products?
What gelling agent is also derrived from red algae?
What species of red algae are edible?
What did the Japanese call dulse?
What subphylum are blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) catagorized in because of their cellular structure?
What are microscopic, one-celled, aquatic organisms found on both fresh water ans salt water?
What is the most common dinoflagellates?
What are some examples of fungi?
Toadstools, shelf fungi, mold, athletes foot.
What does it mean when a fungi is saprophytes?
They obtain their nutrition from dead organisms.
What are the threadlike structures, or filaments, which form the body of a fungus?
What are scientists called that study fungi?
What is the mass of hyphae called that forms the main body of a fungi?
What are autotrophs?
Green plants that manufacture their own food.
What are heterotrophs?
Organisms that must obtain their food from sources outside themselves.
What are the spores in microscopic club-shaped structures produced by fungi called?
What umbrella-shaped, spore-forming structure grows quickly into the air in the reproduction of mushrooms?
What does the fruiting body contain that radiates from the stalk like spokes on a wheel?
What fungi are often found growing on trees or rotting logs?
Bracket or shelf fungi.
What do you call parasitic club fungi, which do millions of dollars worth of damage to crops each year?
rusts and smuts.
What What does it mean when a rust is an alternate parasite?
It means that in needs two hosts in order to complete its lifecycle.
What produce masses of black spores in their hosts?
What mold is a miniature jungle of fine, shiny, white hyphae?
How is cheese formed?
Cheese is formed by bacteria and molds.