Abeka Biology Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 22 Deck (48):
1

What are the units of structure and function of living things?

cells

2

What is the study of cells known as?

cytology. (or cell biology)

3

Who observed thin sections of cork with a simple microscope of his own making and wrote a description of his observations?

Robert Hooke

4

What states that all living things are composed of living units called cells and of cell products and that all cells come only from preexisting cells?

The cell theory

5

True of False: The size of an organism is determined by the size of cells.

False. The size of an organism is determined by the number of its cells.

6

What is the control center of the cell?

nucleus

7

What code governs the construction and operation of the cell and contains the "blueprints" used to construct the cell's machinery?

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

8

What membrane separates the nucleus from the res of the cell?

nuclear envelope

9

What large protein complexes in the envelope serve as "gates", regulating the transport of large molecules in and out of the nucleus?

nuclear pores

10

In what region are the ribosomes assembled?

In the nucleolus

11

What fluid contains and extraordinary diversity organelles, or "little organs,"as well as numerous dissolved chemicals?

cytoplasm

12

What large protein molecules are found both in the cytoplasm and in the organelles, carrying out various chemical reactions to produce energy, transform raw materials into useful substances, or break down old proteins to be recycled?

enzymes

13

What intricate internal skeleton of the cell helps it maintain its shape?

cytoskeleton

14

What hollow, rodlike filament composed of a protein called tubulin, make up the cytoskeleton?

microtubules

15

In what structure is the microtubule-organizing center located?

In the centrosome, Which is located near the nucleus, at the center of the cell.

16

What pair of cylindrical structures made of tubulin are contained in the centrosome?

centrioles

17

What "power plants" of a cell oxidize or "burn" carbohydrates and fats and use the energy to produce ATP?

mitochondria

18

What very complex organelles very complex organelles quite similar in design to mitochondria, are only present in plant cells?

chloroplasts

19

What special protein factories manufacture protein?

ribosomes

20

What is a network of interconnected sacs and tubules that is connected to the nuclear envelop and extends throughout the cell?

ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

21

What type of ER is near the nucleus, and has a rough appearance?

Rough ER

22

What type of ER is far from the nucleus, and has a smooth appearance?

Smooth ER

23

What structures serve as the shipping centers of the cell?

Golgi complexes

24

What special type of vesicle functions as a recycling center?

lysosome

25

What membrane separates the human cell from the outside environment?

cell membrane

26

What special lipid molecules make up the cell membrane?

phospholipids

27

What rigid, boxlike structure is produced outside the cell membrane?

cell wall

28

What is a stable internal environment known as?

homeostasis

29

What is pH?

The concentration of acids and bases.

30

What phosphorus compound serves as the energy carrier of the cell and as a convenient form for the temporary storage of chemical energy?

ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

31

What is the movement of molecules across the cell membrane from a place of lower concentration to a place of higher concentration with the expenditure of energy?

Active transport

32

What is the process of taking in large substances known as?

endocytosis

33

What is the method of endocytosis in which the cell surrounds the solid particles with the cell membrane and then engulf them?

phagocytosis

34

What process of endocytosis means "cell drinking"?

pinocytosis

35

By what process are waste products eliminated from the cytoplasms?

exocytosis

36

What is a large, moveable whiplike tail that actions from the cell?

flagellum

37

What are tiny hairlike projections that extend from the cell membrane?

cilia

38

True or false: The DNA is careful replicated so that there are two copies of it before the cell divides?

true

39

During what phase of the cell cycle does cell division, or mitosis take place, and the nucleus of a cell divides to generate two nuclei withe the same number of chromosomes as the original nucleus?

M phase

40

What is the genetic material within the nucleus, consisting of DNA molecules and their protein "spools"?

chromatin

41

What threadlike structures are chromatin organized into?

chromosomes

42

What is the first step of mitosis, where the cell packages its DNA into chromosomes that are visible through the microscope?

prophase

43

What structure do chromosomes become attached to during metaphase?

spindle apparatus

44

In what phase of mitosis does the nuclear membrane disappear and the centrioles are at opposite poles of the cell?

metaphase

45

In what stage of mitosis do the chromatids separate from each other and begin to move apart?

anaphase

46

What stage of mitosis follows anaphase and is in some respect the revers of prophase?

telophase

47

During what stage in humans and animals does the cell membrane pinches in half, forming two daughter cells?

cytokinesis

48

a

a