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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 8 Deck (128):
1

What is the name of a biologist that studies the nervous system?

neurobiologist

2

What is the name of a physician who specializes in disorders of the nervous system?

neurologist

3

What system includes the brain and spinal cord?

central nervous system

4

What is the principal organ of the nervous system?

the brain

5

By what means does the brain communicate with the body?

spinal cord

6

What 31 pairs of nerves transmit nerve signals to and from the rest of the body?

spinal nerves

7

What 12 pairs of nerves branch directly from the brain stem and transmit nerve signals to and from the eyes, eyes, mouth, face, and scalp?

cranial nerves

8

What triple layer of protective tissue covers the spinal chord?

meninges

9

What clear fluid circulates though the fibers of the arachnid, and serves to cushion the brain when you bump your head?

cerebrospinal fluid

10

What cells support and insulate nerve tissue?

glial cells

11

What short, branched extension of the cell receives nerve impulses from other neurons and conducts them toward the cell body?

dendrite

12

What is a long extension which relays nerve impulses from the cell body to the other neurons?

axon

13

What consists largely of the cell bodies of the neurons and is gray because the cell bodies lack the white, specialized covering known as myelin?

grey matter

14

What is composed of axions and glial cells that are white because of their myelin content?

white matter

15

What is a ganglion?

A mass of cell bodies.

16

What is it called when some ganglia are grouped together to form a large mass?

A plexus

17

What is a group of cell bodies in the brain or the spinal cord called?

nerve center

18

What are neurons that transmit information to the central nervous system from the senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell, as well as those that transmit signals called?

sensory neurons

19

What are neurons that relay signals from the central nervous system to the other parts of the body called?

motor neurons

20

What group of neurons are found only in the central nervous system?

interneurons

21

What tightly sealed capillary walls protect the central nervous system from being permanently damaged every time you get sick?

blood-brain barrier

22

What can invading micro-organisms cause when they enter the nerve tissue and infect the meninges?

meningitis

23

What is a state of prolonged unconsciousness?

a coma

24

What serious disease attacks the spinal cord?

poliomyelitis (polio).

25

What system consists of nerves, which are bundles of nerve fibers branching from the brain and spinal cord and connecting the central nervous system to the extremities of the body?

peripheral nervous system

26

What carry impulses from light, taste, sound, touch, and pain from other parts of the body to the spinal cord and brain for analysis?

sensory nerve fibers

27

What carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to produce action in muscles and organs?

motor nerve fibers

28

What part of the peripheral nervous system controls the heart and other internal organs?

autonomic nervous system

29

What cells produce layers of myelin sheathing that acts much like the insulation in an electrical wire?

Schwann cells

30

What disease of the brain and spinal cord, that usually strikes adults, occurs when the body's immune system attacks the glial cells that provide muslin sheaths for their cell axons?

Multiple sclerosis

31

What is the inability for the muscles to move?

paralysis

32

What wave of electrical activity is propagated by fast-acting, voltage-sensing ion gates that quickly open and close, allowing sodium and potassium ions to briefly flow into and out of the cell?

action potential

33

What is an enclosed junction between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another?

synapse

34

When the action potential reaches the synapse, it causes what chemical neuron to be released into the synapse?

neurotransmitter

35

What serious disease of the nervous system affects the patient's control of posture and movement?

parkinsons desease

36

What is the simplest act of the nervous system?

reflex

37

What is the simplest nerve pathway, which may involve as few as two or three nerve cells?

reflex arc

38

What upper part of the brain coordinates thought, memory, and learned behavior?

cerebrum

39

What is the lower part of the brain that helps control balance and coordinates voluntary muscle activity?

cerebellum

40

What part connects the brain to the spinal cord, and controls the involuntary muscles and activities of the autonomic nervous system?

brain stem

41

What part is the largest part of the brain, and is the physical organ that helps you in the areas of consciousness, memory, voluntary action, thinking, and intelligence?

cerebrum

42

What two parts does the brain consist of?

right and left hemisphere

43

What deep groove divides the two halves of the brain?

longitudinal fissure

44

Do your right and left hemispheres control the opposite side of the body or the same side of the body?

the opposite sides

45

What mass of nerve fibers is located at the base of the cerebrum are used for the right and left hemisphere to communicate with each other?

corpus callosum

46

What outer layer of the cerebrum has much of the brain's gray matter?

cerebral cortex

47

What are the various regions that are made up of convolutions that correspond with the major bones of the cranium?

lobes

48

What is the rear portion of the frontal lobes called?

motor area

49

What disorder appears when damage to the cerebral motor area occurs?

cerebral palsy

50

What is the second largest brain region?

cerebellum

51

What lobe handles the most complex muscle coordination?

cerebellum

52

What region of the brain is located between the cerebrum and the spinal cord?

brain stem

53

What part of the brain stem contains nerve centers that monitor and regulate breathing, heart beat, blood pressure, and other vital body functions?

medulla oblongata

54

What part of the brain stem links the cerebrum and the cerebellum and assist the medulla oblongata in regulating breathing?

pons

55

What is the intricate network of neurons called that is the master switch of the cerebrum?

reticular formation

56

What region of the brain lies above the pons and controls the movements of both eyes, adjusts the size of the pupils in response to light, and operates the lens muscles to focus the eyes on the object of your attention?

midbrain

57

What complex brain structures are involved in coordinating the activity of the different parts of the brain?

limbic system

58

What part of the limbic system acts like a switchboard, routing activation signals from the reticular formation and sensory impulses from various parts of the body to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex?

thalamus

59

What serves as the control unit for your body's autonomic and endocrine system?

hypothalamus

60

Name the four structures of the limbic system.

Thalamus, hypothalamus, hipocampus, amigdala

61

According to what philosophy can a person's actions be completely explained as responses to particular stimuli?

behaviorism

62

Are the mind and brain the same?

no

63

What is the partial or complete hearing loss called that is caused by repeated or prolonged exposure to excessively loud sounds?

sensorineural deafness

64

What is a scientific measure for loudness?

decibels

65

What are the periods of rapid eye movement called during sleep?

REM sleep

66

What is one of the most commonly abused drugs?

alcohol

67

What is the degeneration and inflammation of nerves that is often caused by alcohol?

neuritis

68

What condition is caused by a pinching of the sciatic nerve of the lower spinal cord?

Sciatica

69

What serious brain injury is caused by an internal blockage or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain?

stroke

70

What is a period of paralysis of the central nervous system accompanied by a short period of unconsciousness?

concussion

71

What is loss of memory called?

amnesia

72

What is a prolonged unconscious state that may not be reversible called that can result from damage from the nervous system?

coma

73

What is a disturbance of the brain caused by physical illness elsewhere in the body called?

acute confusion

74

What is the disorder that results from the slow process of natural nerve cell loss called?

senile dementia

75

What kind of dementia is caused by the death of brain cells because blockage in the arteries restricts the blood supply?

Arteriosclerotic dementia

76

What illness is also caused by death of brain cells because of blockage in the arteries restricting their blood supply?

dementia

77

What illness, which may occur early in life, may cause forgetfulness, loss of coordination, and continuous repetition of a word of gesture?

alzheimers

78

What common neurological disorder, that affects people of all ages, occurs when brain cells of the cerebral cortex fire
in seemingly random patterns as they help process the normal thoughts and actions of life?

epilepsy

79

What living sensors receive information and relay it to the spinal cord or brain?

sensory receptors

80

What is sight, hearing, smell taste, and balance known as, which are provided by a second group of neurons located in intricately designed sense organs?

special senses

81

What bare dendrite of the skin reacts to a certain type of strong stimulus?

pain receptors

82

What receptors, responsible for sensations of touch and pressure, lie at different depths in the layers of your skin?

mechanoreceptors

83

What receptors in your skin react to temperatures above normal body temperature?

heat receptors

84

What receptors are sensitive to temperatures below normal body temperature?

cold receptors

85

What type of senses are taste and smell, which result from the stimulation of chemoreceptors on the tongue and in the nose.

chemical senses

86

What buds are responsible for the sense of taste, which are chemoreceptors in the back, sides, and front of the tongue that detect dissolved chemicals in the mouth?

taste buds

87

What nerve is connected to the nose's sensory receptors in the upper part of the nasal cavity?

olfactory nerve

88

What taut membrane is stretched across the canal like the surface of a drum?

eardrum

89

What three tiny bones in the ear form a delicate structure designed to amplify the vibrations while preserving the quality of the sound?

Malleus, incus, and stapes.

90

What coiled tube resembling a snail's shell is located in the inner ear?

cochlea

91

What nerve carries electrical messages from waving cells to the brain, where they are translated into meaningful sounds?

auditory nerve

92

What canals, which serve as balance-receptors, are an assembly of three fluid-filled tubes?

semicircular canals

93

What conduction occurs when you speak, and the vibrations of your voice travel to your inner ear through the jawbone?

bone conduction

94

What occurs when your eardrum is punctured?

punctures

95

What is a ringing in the ear called, sometimes caused by fever, high blood pressure, tumors, and drugs?

tinnitus

96

What infections are a common problem among infants and young children, and occurs when microbes from the throat travel up the eustachian tube to the middle ear?

ear infections

97

How does an ear infection occur?

When microbes from the throat travel up the eustachian tube to the middle ear.

98

What two things protect the eye?

socket and eyelid

99

What are produced by tear glands, which are located under the upper eyelid in the side away from the nose?

Tears

100

What is another name for the tear gland

lacrimal glands

101

What enzyme destroys bacteria by breaking a chemical bond in the cell walls of bacteria, causing the walls to split?

lysozyme

102

What set of six muscles serve to move the eye, and how do they move the eye?

The extrinsic muscles work work in pairs, one pair moving the eye to the right and left, another pair moving the eye up and down, and a third pair tilting the eye right or left, allowing your brain to keep the eye level even when your head is tilted.

103

What does the outermost layer of the eye consist of, often called the white of the eye?

sclera

104

What middle layer of the eye includes the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid?

uvea

105

What is the innermost layer of the eye, and is itself composed of three main layers?

retina

106

What is the tough outer layer tissue which provides protection and supporting frame for the interior portions of the eye?

sclera

107

What area in the eye does light enter?

cornea

108

What layer of connective tissue s rich in blood vessels,and provides most of the eyes nourishment?

choroid

109

What turns in to the ciliary body toward the front?

choroid

110

What part of the uvea at the front of the eye is a continuation of the ciliary body?

iris

111

What opening in the middle of the iris does light enter though?

pupil

112

What is the innermost layer of the eye, and is the most delicate part of the eye and the most important for vision?

The retina

113

What types of cells are found in the light-sensitive layer of the retina, named for their shapes?

rods and cones

114

What is the area the produces the clearest vision?

fovea

115

What "nerve" is not just a nerve but a large bundle of nerves of individual nerves, each of which carries nerve impulses from a specific region of the retina to the brain?

optic nerve

116

What spot in your eye is where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball called?

blind spot

117

What substance in rod cells absorb light?

rhodopsin

118

What is the phenomenon called when the image or picture of the object on the retina remains about a tenth of a second after the object is gone?

persistence of vision

119

What clear fluid fills the small space in-between the iris and lens, which is produced from blind circulating in the ciliary body?

aqueous humor

120

What part of the eye focuses the rays of light which passes through its called?

lens

121

What transparent, jellylike substance found between the lens and the rear of the eye is about 98% water?

vitreous humor

122

What is the ability to see only near objects clearly?

myopia (nearsightedness)

123

What is the ability to see only far objects clearly?

hyperopia (farsightedness)

124

What is usually the result of an asymmetrically curved cornea, which causes light rays entering the eye to be bent incorrectly?

astigmatism

125

What occurs when the eye's lens becomes less elastic, and is difficult to focus on nearby objects?

presbyopia

126

What are people said to be when they cannot disunites one or more of the primer colors?

colorblind

127

What occurs when people's eyes do not become adjusted to darkness, remaining almost totally blind in dimly lit places?

night blindness

128

What condition occurs when pressure of the fluid inside the eye becomes much higher than normal. causing permanent damage to the cells of the retina?

glaucoma