Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 8 Deck (128):
What is the name of a biologist that studies the nervous system?
What is the name of a physician who specializes in disorders of the nervous system?
What system includes the brain and spinal cord?
central nervous system
What is the principal organ of the nervous system?
By what means does the brain communicate with the body?
What 31 pairs of nerves transmit nerve signals to and from the rest of the body?
What 12 pairs of nerves branch directly from the brain stem and transmit nerve signals to and from the eyes, eyes, mouth, face, and scalp?
What triple layer of protective tissue covers the spinal chord?
What clear fluid circulates though the fibers of the arachnid, and serves to cushion the brain when you bump your head?
What cells support and insulate nerve tissue?
What short, branched extension of the cell receives nerve impulses from other neurons and conducts them toward the cell body?
What is a long extension which relays nerve impulses from the cell body to the other neurons?
What consists largely of the cell bodies of the neurons and is gray because the cell bodies lack the white, specialized covering known as myelin?
What is composed of axions and glial cells that are white because of their myelin content?
What is a ganglion?
A mass of cell bodies.
What is it called when some ganglia are grouped together to form a large mass?
What is a group of cell bodies in the brain or the spinal cord called?
What are neurons that transmit information to the central nervous system from the senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell, as well as those that transmit signals called?
What are neurons that relay signals from the central nervous system to the other parts of the body called?
What group of neurons are found only in the central nervous system?
What tightly sealed capillary walls protect the central nervous system from being permanently damaged every time you get sick?
What can invading micro-organisms cause when they enter the nerve tissue and infect the meninges?
What is a state of prolonged unconsciousness?
What serious disease attacks the spinal cord?
What system consists of nerves, which are bundles of nerve fibers branching from the brain and spinal cord and connecting the central nervous system to the extremities of the body?
peripheral nervous system
What carry impulses from light, taste, sound, touch, and pain from other parts of the body to the spinal cord and brain for analysis?
sensory nerve fibers
What carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to produce action in muscles and organs?
motor nerve fibers
What part of the peripheral nervous system controls the heart and other internal organs?
autonomic nervous system
What cells produce layers of myelin sheathing that acts much like the insulation in an electrical wire?
What disease of the brain and spinal cord, that usually strikes adults, occurs when the body's immune system attacks the glial cells that provide muslin sheaths for their cell axons?
What is the inability for the muscles to move?
What wave of electrical activity is propagated by fast-acting, voltage-sensing ion gates that quickly open and close, allowing sodium and potassium ions to briefly flow into and out of the cell?
What is an enclosed junction between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another?
When the action potential reaches the synapse, it causes what chemical neuron to be released into the synapse?
What serious disease of the nervous system affects the patient's control of posture and movement?
What is the simplest act of the nervous system?
What is the simplest nerve pathway, which may involve as few as two or three nerve cells?
What upper part of the brain coordinates thought, memory, and learned behavior?
What is the lower part of the brain that helps control balance and coordinates voluntary muscle activity?
What part connects the brain to the spinal cord, and controls the involuntary muscles and activities of the autonomic nervous system?
What part is the largest part of the brain, and is the physical organ that helps you in the areas of consciousness, memory, voluntary action, thinking, and intelligence?
What two parts does the brain consist of?
right and left hemisphere
What deep groove divides the two halves of the brain?
Do your right and left hemispheres control the opposite side of the body or the same side of the body?
the opposite sides
What mass of nerve fibers is located at the base of the cerebrum are used for the right and left hemisphere to communicate with each other?
What outer layer of the cerebrum has much of the brain's gray matter?
What are the various regions that are made up of convolutions that correspond with the major bones of the cranium?
What is the rear portion of the frontal lobes called?
What disorder appears when damage to the cerebral motor area occurs?
What is the second largest brain region?
What lobe handles the most complex muscle coordination?
What region of the brain is located between the cerebrum and the spinal cord?
What part of the brain stem contains nerve centers that monitor and regulate breathing, heart beat, blood pressure, and other vital body functions?
What part of the brain stem links the cerebrum and the cerebellum and assist the medulla oblongata in regulating breathing?
What is the intricate network of neurons called that is the master switch of the cerebrum?
What region of the brain lies above the pons and controls the movements of both eyes, adjusts the size of the pupils in response to light, and operates the lens muscles to focus the eyes on the object of your attention?
What complex brain structures are involved in coordinating the activity of the different parts of the brain?
What part of the limbic system acts like a switchboard, routing activation signals from the reticular formation and sensory impulses from various parts of the body to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex?
What serves as the control unit for your body's autonomic and endocrine system?
Name the four structures of the limbic system.
Thalamus, hypothalamus, hipocampus, amigdala
According to what philosophy can a person's actions be completely explained as responses to particular stimuli?
Are the mind and brain the same?
What is the partial or complete hearing loss called that is caused by repeated or prolonged exposure to excessively loud sounds?
What is a scientific measure for loudness?
What are the periods of rapid eye movement called during sleep?
What is one of the most commonly abused drugs?
What is the degeneration and inflammation of nerves that is often caused by alcohol?
What condition is caused by a pinching of the sciatic nerve of the lower spinal cord?
What serious brain injury is caused by an internal blockage or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain?
What is a period of paralysis of the central nervous system accompanied by a short period of unconsciousness?
What is loss of memory called?
What is a prolonged unconscious state that may not be reversible called that can result from damage from the nervous system?
What is a disturbance of the brain caused by physical illness elsewhere in the body called?
What is the disorder that results from the slow process of natural nerve cell loss called?
What kind of dementia is caused by the death of brain cells because blockage in the arteries restricts the blood supply?
What illness is also caused by death of brain cells because of blockage in the arteries restricting their blood supply?
What illness, which may occur early in life, may cause forgetfulness, loss of coordination, and continuous repetition of a word of gesture?
What common neurological disorder, that affects people of all ages, occurs when brain cells of the cerebral cortex fire
in seemingly random patterns as they help process the normal thoughts and actions of life?
What living sensors receive information and relay it to the spinal cord or brain?
What is sight, hearing, smell taste, and balance known as, which are provided by a second group of neurons located in intricately designed sense organs?
What bare dendrite of the skin reacts to a certain type of strong stimulus?
What receptors, responsible for sensations of touch and pressure, lie at different depths in the layers of your skin?
What receptors in your skin react to temperatures above normal body temperature?
What receptors are sensitive to temperatures below normal body temperature?
What type of senses are taste and smell, which result from the stimulation of chemoreceptors on the tongue and in the nose.
What buds are responsible for the sense of taste, which are chemoreceptors in the back, sides, and front of the tongue that detect dissolved chemicals in the mouth?
What nerve is connected to the nose's sensory receptors in the upper part of the nasal cavity?
What taut membrane is stretched across the canal like the surface of a drum?
What three tiny bones in the ear form a delicate structure designed to amplify the vibrations while preserving the quality of the sound?
Malleus, incus, and stapes.
What coiled tube resembling a snail's shell is located in the inner ear?
What nerve carries electrical messages from waving cells to the brain, where they are translated into meaningful sounds?
What canals, which serve as balance-receptors, are an assembly of three fluid-filled tubes?
What conduction occurs when you speak, and the vibrations of your voice travel to your inner ear through the jawbone?
What occurs when your eardrum is punctured?
What is a ringing in the ear called, sometimes caused by fever, high blood pressure, tumors, and drugs?
What infections are a common problem among infants and young children, and occurs when microbes from the throat travel up the eustachian tube to the middle ear?
How does an ear infection occur?
When microbes from the throat travel up the eustachian tube to the middle ear.
What two things protect the eye?
socket and eyelid
What are produced by tear glands, which are located under the upper eyelid in the side away from the nose?
What is another name for the tear gland
What enzyme destroys bacteria by breaking a chemical bond in the cell walls of bacteria, causing the walls to split?
What set of six muscles serve to move the eye, and how do they move the eye?
The extrinsic muscles work work in pairs, one pair moving the eye to the right and left, another pair moving the eye up and down, and a third pair tilting the eye right or left, allowing your brain to keep the eye level even when your head is tilted.
What does the outermost layer of the eye consist of, often called the white of the eye?
What middle layer of the eye includes the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid?
What is the innermost layer of the eye, and is itself composed of three main layers?
What is the tough outer layer tissue which provides protection and supporting frame for the interior portions of the eye?
What area in the eye does light enter?
What layer of connective tissue s rich in blood vessels,and provides most of the eyes nourishment?
What turns in to the ciliary body toward the front?
What part of the uvea at the front of the eye is a continuation of the ciliary body?
What opening in the middle of the iris does light enter though?
What is the innermost layer of the eye, and is the most delicate part of the eye and the most important for vision?
What types of cells are found in the light-sensitive layer of the retina, named for their shapes?
rods and cones
What is the area the produces the clearest vision?
What "nerve" is not just a nerve but a large bundle of nerves of individual nerves, each of which carries nerve impulses from a specific region of the retina to the brain?
What spot in your eye is where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball called?
What substance in rod cells absorb light?
What is the phenomenon called when the image or picture of the object on the retina remains about a tenth of a second after the object is gone?
persistence of vision
What clear fluid fills the small space in-between the iris and lens, which is produced from blind circulating in the ciliary body?
What part of the eye focuses the rays of light which passes through its called?
What transparent, jellylike substance found between the lens and the rear of the eye is about 98% water?
What is the ability to see only near objects clearly?
What is the ability to see only far objects clearly?
What is usually the result of an asymmetrically curved cornea, which causes light rays entering the eye to be bent incorrectly?
What occurs when the eye's lens becomes less elastic, and is difficult to focus on nearby objects?
What are people said to be when they cannot disunites one or more of the primer colors?
What occurs when people's eyes do not become adjusted to darkness, remaining almost totally blind in dimly lit places?