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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 12 Deck (61):
1

What are diseases in which tissues and organs gradually lose their ability to function properly?

degenerative diseases

2

What are diseases caused by malfunctions of the immune system broadly termed as?

immunological diseases

3

What diseases result when the immune system attacks the body it is supposed to protect?

autoimmune disease

4

What are the most common immunological diseases?

allergies

5

What are disorders which occur as a result of malfunctions of the endocrine system called?

hormonal disease

6

What diseases occur during development in the mother' womb and are present at birth?

congenital diseases

7

What nutritional disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrient?

deficiency disease

8

What is the second-leading cause of death in the United States?

cancer

9

What is a mass of rapidly reproducing cells called?

tumor

10

What is a tumor called when it shows no tendency to spread through the body?

benign tumor

11

What is a tumor said to be when it shows signs of spreading?

malignant

12

What four major factors together account for as many as 98% of all cancer deaths?

hereditary defects, nutrition, smoking of drug abuse, and viruses

13

At present, what is one of the most important factors in treating cancer?

Treat the cancer early, before it has spread.

14

What are some preventions for cancer?

Avoid smoking, eat a healthy and balanced diet with plenty of vegetables, and exercise regularly.

15

What diseases are those in which the invading microbe can be transferred from person to person?

communicable disease

16

What diseases are caused by microorganisms that are not transferred from one person to another?

noncommunicable disease

17

What microscopic unicellular creatures are some of the most widespread organisms i all of God's creations?

bacteria

18

What cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-enclosed cell parts?

eukaryotic cells

19

In what cells does the nucleus lack a membrane, and instead the nuclear material is clumped in a dense region of the cell called the nucleoid?

prokaryotic cells

20

What are bacteria considered when they are capable of motion?

motile

21

What spherical-shaped bacteria usually grows in clusters or chains?

Cocci

22

What are rod-shaped bacteria?

Bacilli

23

What are spiral-shaped bacteria?

Spirilla

24

In what asexual process are bacteria able to reproduce rabidly?

binary fission

25

What small bacteria are identical to other bacteria in structure, but reproduce only inside other living cells?

rickettsiae

26

What bacteria which live where air is present and obtain their oxygen from the heir are called aerobic bacteria?

aerobic

27

What bacteria live in the absence of of oxygen?

anaerobic

28

What famous french scientist observed that bacteria sometimes spoiled wine by turning into vinegar?

Louis Pasteur

29

Who developed the techniques scientists needed in order to study bacteria safely?

Robert Koch

30

Who do we call the first great bacteriologist?

Robert Koch

31

What is Koch's procedure known as?

Koch's postulates

32

What is the simplest way bacteria harm the cells of the infected individual?

stealing the cell's nutrients

33

What is another way to harm cells of the infected individual?

producing harmful substances

34

What is a third way that bacteria can cause harm to the cell?

By turning issues into a battleground.

35

What is a virus?

A virus is a molecule of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a geometric protein structure called capsid

36

How are viruses manufactured?

Viruses are manufactured and assembled by infected cells.

37

What is a scientist who studies viruses?

virologist

38

What viruses are RNA viruses that use their RNA to to replicate viral DNA that is then inserted into the host cell's own chromosomes?

retrociruses

39

What single celled animals are responsible for several well-known diseases common in tropical regions?

protozoa

40

What disease, for example, is caused by protozoa of the genus plasmodium?

malaria

41

What is one infection which is carried by water droplets, such as those discarded during a sneeze or a cough?

droplet infection

42

What is a person who displays no symptoms of a disease but harbors the pathogens in his body and passes them on to infect others called?

carrier

43

What are almost always spread by sexual relations especial those outside of God's institution of marriage?

venereal diseases

44

What are STD's?

sexually transmitted disease

45

What is one of the simplest ways to stop the spread of many diseases?

frequent hand washing

46

What is another method of disease prevention mentioned in the Scriptures?

avoiding unnecessary contact

47

What can also be used to prevent the spread of disease?

vaccination

48

What special cells are programmed to search out and destroy any organism or substance that they do not recognize as a part of the body?

white blood cells

49

What complex network of fluid-filled vessel and chambers helps transport white blood cells throughout the body and aids the white blood cells in cleansing internal body fluids of pathogens?

lymphatic systems

50

What cells, also referred to as leukocytes, do the work of protecting your body against invaders?

white blood cells

51

Know this:

God has designed the immune system with several types of white blood cells, each of which is designed to carry out a specific function.

52

What chemical messenger is produced by some white blood cells and mast cells when invading microorganisms or foreign substances are detected in the body?

Histamine

53

What are an accumulation of lymph nodes in the throat to protect that port of entry to the body?

tonsils and adenoids

54

What occurs when your tonsils become infected?

tonsillitis

55

What are lymph node groups located in the intestinal wall of the lower part of the small intestine?

Peyer's patches

56

What lymph organ is about the size of your fist and is located beneath the diaphragm just behind the stomach?

spleen

57

What lymphatic organ is located between the lugs above the heart?

thymus

58

What is a condition of resistance to a particular pathogen?

immunity

59

What are blood extracts that contain antibodies against a particular pathogen?

serums

60

What type of immunity occurs because any pathogens infect only particular types of organisms?

species immunity

61

What syndrome, which is caused by the virus HIV, is by far the most prevalent immune deficiency?

AIDS