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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 2 Deck (80):
1

What is the name for a group of structures designed to function together as a unit to perform a particular job for an organism?

A system

2

What part of the plant is ordinarily underground, anchoring the plant, and functions in absorption of nutrients and storage of food?

The root system

3

What part of the plant is usually found above ground, holding up the leaves toward the sun for the manufacturing of flowers, fruits, and seeds?

The shoot system

4

What is a structure within a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system?

organ

5

What are the three basic leaf shapes?

broad and flat, long and narrow, and needle-like or scale-like

6

What are the two main parts found on a simple leaf?

the blade and the petiole

7

What are leaves called that lack a petiole?

sessile

8

What are simple leaves?

Leaves that have one blade on each petiole

9

What are small lifelike or scalelike structures that helped to cover the leaf when it was developing called?

Stipules

10

What are compound leaves?

Leaves that have more than one blade on every petiole

11

What is a leaflet?

Each small blade on a compound leaf

12

What are the points at which leaves grow from the stem referred to as?

nodes

13

What is called when two leaves grow from each node?

opposite

14

What is it called when only one leaf grows from each node in an alternating pattern up the branch?

alternate

15

What is it called when there are three or more leaves growing from each node?

whorled

16

What is it called when a plant has a cluster of leaves growing around the base of the plant?

rosette

17

What is the growth response of a plant stimulated by light?

phototropism

18

What is living material which is constructed in such a way as to perform a particular task for the organs of an organism called?

tissue

19

What are the four types of structural tissue?

Epidermal tissue, cork, parenchyma, and support and strengthening tissue

20

What tissue protects and covers leaves, roots, stems, and other exposed areas and prevents excessive water loss and injury by outside agents?

Epidermal tissue

21

What consists of a waxy substance that helps to seal in water and normally covers epidermal tissue?

cuticle layer

22

What specialized cells absorb water and nutrients for the root?

root hairs

23

What does cork tissue do for the stems and certain roots of woody plants?

It protects and waterproofs them

24

What tissue is found in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits and makes and stores food?

Parenchyma tissue

25

What tissue consist of fibers which run through roots, stems, and large veins of leaves, and act as support structures?

Support and strengthening tissue

26

What is a sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of plants?

Sap

27

What transoorts water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves?

Xylem

28

What transports food manufactured on the leaves downward?

Phloem

29

What is the purpose of meristematic tissue?

The growth and repair of plants

30

What tissue is internal and enables stems and roots to grow in diameter?

cambium tissue

31

What does vascular cambium do?

It produces new vascular tissue

32

What does cork cambium do?

It produces new cork tissue

33

What provides coverage and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces?

The epidermis

34

What waxy layer helps the epidermis to prevent water loss from the leaf?

The cuticle

35

What are tiny openings usually on the lower epidermis of leaves called?

Stomata

36

What is the loss of water vapor from leaves and stems called?

Transpiration

37

What are the two crescent-shaped cells called that expand and contract to open and close each stoma?

guard cells

38

What are the hair-like structures called that give the leaves of some plants a somewhat wooly appearance? They protect against wind, slow down transpiration, and defend against insects. Some even secrete toxic substances to ward off enemies.

Leaf hairs

39

What is the middle portion of the leaf called?

mesophyll

40

Where does most of the photosynthesis take place?

In the mesophyll

41

What are the air spaces between the mesophyll cells called?

Intercellular air spaces

42

What are the two layers of the mesophyll?

The palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll

43

What is the basic structural unit of all living things called?

cell

44

What surrounds the cell, separates it from the environment, and regulates what enters and leaves the cell?

The cell membrane

45

What is the cavity surrounded by a membrane called?

The lumen

46

What spherical body, often located near the center of the cell, controls the cell's activities?

The nucleus

47

What serves as the fluid medium for the many molecules and organelles that make up the cell?

cytoplasm

48

What do plant cells have that is found around the outside of a cell membrane?

Cell wall

49

What is a complex carbohydrate made up of long chains of glucose molecules called? It makes up the cell wall.

cellulose

50

What special structures, found within the cell wall of all green plants, use the light of the sun to manufacture food?

Chloroplasts

51

What green pigment gives plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of the sun?

chlorophyll

52

What is the pattern of the veins within the leaves referred to as?

venation

53

In what kind of venation are the veins usually parallel to each other along the length of the leaf?

parallel venation

54

In what kind of venation are the veins in a branching pattern, characterized by one major vein with smaller veins extending outward from it?

pinnate venation

55

What is the main vein in a pinnate venation called?

midrib

56

What kind of venation is characterized by two or more major veins extending outward from one point like the fingers extending from the palm of the hand?

palmate venation

57

What are the storage structures in cells that store food materials, food substances, and minerals?

Vacuoles

58

What are organisms which are capable of making their own food called?

autotrophs

59

What are organisms which are not capable of making their own food and must obtain it from other organisms called?

heterotrophs

60

What is the process whereby a plant makes its own food called?

photosynthesis

61

What are the stacks of specialized disks inside chloroplasts called?

thylakoids

62

What is produced when hydrogen atoms from NADPH are combined with carbon dioxide from the air?

glucose

63

What is the process called that enables the plant to burn sugars as fuel for energy?

cellular respiration

64

What is most of the glucose produced through photosynthesis converted to for transport to the rest of the plant?

sucrose

65

What long, chainlike molecule do plants change sugar into in order to store it?

starch

66

What are the most important factors in the process of photosynthesis? What is the most important of these?

Water, carbon dioxide, heat , and sunlight; sunlight

67

What colors does xanthophyll produce?

yellowish colors

68

What colors does carotene produce?

yellowish-orangish colors

69

What colors does anthocyanin produce?

bright red, blue, and purple colors

70

What layer cuts the leaves off from the stem?

abscission layer

71

What special enzyme weakens the cell walls of the abscission layer, allowing the leaf to break off under its own weight?

cellulase

72

What are the factors affecting the weight of transpiration?

humidity of the air, temperature, intensity of sunlight, wind speed, amount of carbon dioxide in the air, amount of soil water available.

73

What pressure is produced within the guard cells?

turgor pressure

74

When the guard cells are filled with water, they are ____.

Turgid

75

What occurs when transpiration takes place faster than the roots can absorb soil water, causing the plant cells to lose their turgor?

temporary wilting

76

What wilting results in the loss of leaves or even the death of plants? It occurs when there is a drought and there is not sufficient soil water to replace that lost by transpiration?

permanent wilting

77

What type of leaf is one which has a special design for a special task?

special leaf

78

What are special leaves of vines which have the unique function of holing the vine upright by coiling around some support structure?

tendrils

79

What are special productive leaves on cactus which have no chlorophyll?

spines

80

What special plants can trap and digest small insects?

insectivorous plants