Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 2 Deck (80):
What is the name for a group of structures designed to function together as a unit to perform a particular job for an organism?
What part of the plant is ordinarily underground, anchoring the plant, and functions in absorption of nutrients and storage of food?
The root system
What part of the plant is usually found above ground, holding up the leaves toward the sun for the manufacturing of flowers, fruits, and seeds?
The shoot system
What is a structure within a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system?
What are the three basic leaf shapes?
broad and flat, long and narrow, and needle-like or scale-like
What are the two main parts found on a simple leaf?
the blade and the petiole
What are leaves called that lack a petiole?
What are simple leaves?
Leaves that have one blade on each petiole
What are small lifelike or scalelike structures that helped to cover the leaf when it was developing called?
What are compound leaves?
Leaves that have more than one blade on every petiole
What is a leaflet?
Each small blade on a compound leaf
What are the points at which leaves grow from the stem referred to as?
What is called when two leaves grow from each node?
What is it called when only one leaf grows from each node in an alternating pattern up the branch?
What is it called when there are three or more leaves growing from each node?
What is it called when a plant has a cluster of leaves growing around the base of the plant?
What is the growth response of a plant stimulated by light?
What is living material which is constructed in such a way as to perform a particular task for the organs of an organism called?
What are the four types of structural tissue?
Epidermal tissue, cork, parenchyma, and support and strengthening tissue
What tissue protects and covers leaves, roots, stems, and other exposed areas and prevents excessive water loss and injury by outside agents?
What consists of a waxy substance that helps to seal in water and normally covers epidermal tissue?
What specialized cells absorb water and nutrients for the root?
What does cork tissue do for the stems and certain roots of woody plants?
It protects and waterproofs them
What tissue is found in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits and makes and stores food?
What tissue consist of fibers which run through roots, stems, and large veins of leaves, and act as support structures?
Support and strengthening tissue
What is a sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of plants?
What transoorts water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves?
What transports food manufactured on the leaves downward?
What is the purpose of meristematic tissue?
The growth and repair of plants
What tissue is internal and enables stems and roots to grow in diameter?
What does vascular cambium do?
It produces new vascular tissue
What does cork cambium do?
It produces new cork tissue
What provides coverage and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces?
What waxy layer helps the epidermis to prevent water loss from the leaf?
What are tiny openings usually on the lower epidermis of leaves called?
What is the loss of water vapor from leaves and stems called?
What are the two crescent-shaped cells called that expand and contract to open and close each stoma?
What are the hair-like structures called that give the leaves of some plants a somewhat wooly appearance? They protect against wind, slow down transpiration, and defend against insects. Some even secrete toxic substances to ward off enemies.
What is the middle portion of the leaf called?
Where does most of the photosynthesis take place?
In the mesophyll
What are the air spaces between the mesophyll cells called?
Intercellular air spaces
What are the two layers of the mesophyll?
The palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll
What is the basic structural unit of all living things called?
What surrounds the cell, separates it from the environment, and regulates what enters and leaves the cell?
The cell membrane
What is the cavity surrounded by a membrane called?
What spherical body, often located near the center of the cell, controls the cell's activities?
What serves as the fluid medium for the many molecules and organelles that make up the cell?
What do plant cells have that is found around the outside of a cell membrane?
What is a complex carbohydrate made up of long chains of glucose molecules called? It makes up the cell wall.
What special structures, found within the cell wall of all green plants, use the light of the sun to manufacture food?
What green pigment gives plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of the sun?
What is the pattern of the veins within the leaves referred to as?
In what kind of venation are the veins usually parallel to each other along the length of the leaf?
In what kind of venation are the veins in a branching pattern, characterized by one major vein with smaller veins extending outward from it?
What is the main vein in a pinnate venation called?
What kind of venation is characterized by two or more major veins extending outward from one point like the fingers extending from the palm of the hand?
What are the storage structures in cells that store food materials, food substances, and minerals?
What are organisms which are capable of making their own food called?
What are organisms which are not capable of making their own food and must obtain it from other organisms called?
What is the process whereby a plant makes its own food called?
What are the stacks of specialized disks inside chloroplasts called?
What is produced when hydrogen atoms from NADPH are combined with carbon dioxide from the air?
What is the process called that enables the plant to burn sugars as fuel for energy?
What is most of the glucose produced through photosynthesis converted to for transport to the rest of the plant?
What long, chainlike molecule do plants change sugar into in order to store it?
What are the most important factors in the process of photosynthesis? What is the most important of these?
Water, carbon dioxide, heat , and sunlight; sunlight
What colors does xanthophyll produce?
What colors does carotene produce?
What colors does anthocyanin produce?
bright red, blue, and purple colors
What layer cuts the leaves off from the stem?
What special enzyme weakens the cell walls of the abscission layer, allowing the leaf to break off under its own weight?
What are the factors affecting the weight of transpiration?
humidity of the air, temperature, intensity of sunlight, wind speed, amount of carbon dioxide in the air, amount of soil water available.
What pressure is produced within the guard cells?
When the guard cells are filled with water, they are ____.
What occurs when transpiration takes place faster than the roots can absorb soil water, causing the plant cells to lose their turgor?
What wilting results in the loss of leaves or even the death of plants? It occurs when there is a drought and there is not sufficient soil water to replace that lost by transpiration?
What type of leaf is one which has a special design for a special task?
What are special leaves of vines which have the unique function of holing the vine upright by coiling around some support structure?
What are special productive leaves on cactus which have no chlorophyll?