Abeka Biology Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 11 Deck (60):
1

What is the built-in maintenance of a stable internal environment known as?

homeostasis

2

What three of your body's systems are heavily involved in maintaining homeostasis?

integumentary, excretory, and endocrine systems.

3

What is the system of the body designed specifically for homeostasis?

integumentary system

4

What system, which most of us know as skin, covers the outside of the body?

integumentary system

5

What part of the skin is exposed to the environment?

epidermis

6

What condition results when epidermal cells are being formed and discarded to rapidly?

psoriasis

7

What tough, waterproof protein fiber is manufactured in the cytoplasm, strengthening and hardening the cell?

keratin

8

What is the main pigment responsible for skin color?

melanin

9

What is the most complex layer of skin, located under the epidermis?

dermis

10

What are two protein fibers produced by connective tissue located in the dermis which give skin its ability to stretch and its elasticity, which is the ability to return to its original shape?

elastin and collagen

11

What layer of the skin is located underneath the dermis?

subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

12

What is a serious problem for sunbathers?

skin cancer

13

What tube, lying vertically in the dermis, is designed to manufacture hair?

hair follicle

14

What glands produce a substance known as sebum, an oil that waterproofs your skin and ensured that it remains soft and flexible?

sebaceous glands

15

What gland's primary function is to help regulate body temperature?

sweat glands

16

What openings in the skin are connected to the sweat glands by sweat ducts?

pores

17

What is the removal of waste substances from the body called?

excretion

18

What is a major part of the excretory system, and excretes the liquid wasted called urine?

urinary system

19

What are the most important excretory organs?

kidneys

20

What stores urine until it is discarded to the outside through the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body?

urinary bladder

21

In what microscopic network of blood vessels and renal tubules is blood filtered and the purified hormones absorbed?

nephrons

22

What sieve-like structure consists of a cluster of capillaries with perforated walls?

glomerulus

23

What spherical container surrounds the glomerulus and collects the water and dissolved substances ghat escape the blood through the holes?

Bowman's capsule

24

What tube is surrounded by hundreds of blood capillaries?

renal tubule

25

What fluid trains out of the nephron and is pumped down to the bladder for later expulsion rom the body?

urine

26

What process, used by an artificial kidney, refers to separating molecules of different sizes using a membrane?

dialysis

27

What system communicates by means of chemicals rather than by electrochemical impulses?

endocrine system

28

What glands manufacture ad secrete their products into the blood?

endocrine glands

29

What glands manufacture and secrete their products to the outside of the body?

exocrine glands

30

What messengers are produced by the endocrine glands?

hormones

31

What gland, which is sometimes called the master gland because it affects the other endocrine glands, is embedded in a pony compartment just above the roof of the nasal cavity?

pituitary gland

32

What part of the brain connects to the pituitary gland?

hypothalamus

33

What growth hormone regulates skeletal growth?

somatotropin

34

What condition develops when too much somatotropin is produced during the growing years?

pituitary gigantism

35

What condition develops when too little somatotropin is produced during growing years?

pituitary dwarfism

36

What condition occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much somatotropin after normal childhood development?

acromegaly

37

What hormones, which affect the development of the reproductive organs, are produced in the pituitary gland?

gonadotropins

38

What gland is located in the neck

Thyroid gland

39

What hormone, excreted by the thyroid gland, regulates general activities related to metabolism and oxidation?

thyroxine

40

What results from an overactive thyroid gland?

hyperthyroidism

41

What swelling in the neck occurs when the thyroid gland enlarges because of a lack iodine?

simple goiter

42

What organ also contains clumps of endocrine glands called islets of Langerhans?

pancreas

43

What hormone signals the liver and muscles to remove glucose from the blood and store it as glycogen?

insulin

44

What hormone increases the level of sugar in the blood?

glucagon

45

What disease results when the pancreas does not produce adequate amounts of insulin, of when the body does not respond properly to the insulin that is produced?

diabetes mellitus

46

What glands sit like small caps on top of the kidneys?

adrenal glands

47

What hormone is known as the fight or flight hormone because it prepares the body for emergency situations?

epinephrine

48

What is another name for epinephrine?

adrenaline

49

What steroid stimulates the the body to repair itself following an injury or stress?

cortisol

50

What other steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland stimulates the kidney to conserve sodium and excrete potassium?

aldosterone

51

What are the reproductive organs?

gonads (testes in males, and ovaries i females)

52

What are the main hormones produced by the ovaries?

estroogens

53

What are the main hormones secreted by the testes?

testosterone

54

What is a primary function of the sex hormones?

to promote the production of gametes (eggs and sperm)

55

What gland lies in between the cerebral hemispheres of the blain?

pineal gland

56

What is a condition which interferes with the normal functioning of the body?

disease

57

What do scientists refer to any organism which causes disease as?

pathogen

58

What is a disease caused by invading pathogens said to be?

infectious disease

59

What diseases caused by other factors, such as aging,hormones, genetics, or nutrition said to be?

noninfectious

60

What can both types of diseases be further classified as?

acute or chronic