Abeka Biology Chapter 23 Flashcards Preview

Science Study Cards > Abeka Biology Chapter 23 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abeka Biology Chapter 23 Deck (31):
1

What are units of energetic information that are in the chromosomes of the cell?

Genes

2

What is the transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring by mens of genes?

Heredity

3

What is the process called where certain cells are called out to become specialized components of tissues and organs?

differentiation

4

What is a somatic cell?

A body cell.

5

In what specially designed type of cell division do egg and sperm cells originate?

meiosis

6

What is the process in which the egg and sperm unit?

fertilization

7

What single fertilized egg is the result of fertilization?

A zygote

8

What is the set of half of the 46 chromosome in the sperm cell called?

haploid set

9

What is the set of half of the 46 chromosomes in the egg cell called?

diploid set

10

What Austrian monk began studying about heredity by working with pea plants in his small monastery garden in what is ow the Czech Republic?

Gregor Mendel

11

What is the name for the different traits in genetics?

alleles

12

What is an organism called when it has two identical alleles for the same trait?

homozygous

13

What is an organism called when one allele is different from the other?

heterozygous

14

What traits show up in the offspring even if an allele for a different trait is also present?

dominant traits

15

What is the law called when The dominant trait shows up in the offspring been if an allele for a different trait is also present?

law of dominance

16

What is the trait called which does not show up when the dominant allele is present?

recessive trait

17

What states that alleles for each trait segregate or separate randomly during the formation of gametes?

law of segregation

18

What is the mixing and blending of traits called?

codominance

19

What is an organism that is heterozygous for two traits called?

dihybrid

20

What law states that segregation of one gene does not influence the segregation of the other?

law of independent assortment

21

What is a group of several ones that are linked together?

linkage group

22

What homologous pairs of chromosomes determine a organism's sex?

sex chromosomes

23

What is the extent which a certain gene exists in a population?

gene frequency

24

What is one of the most common hereditary diseases among children in the United State, affecting about 30,000 Americans mostly of European ancestry?

Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

25

What happens when both alleles for a trait are equally expressed in a heterozygous individual?

Codominance

26

A person suffering from ______________ makes only abnormal hemoglobin molecules?

sickle cell anemia.

27

What happens when a normal person marries a person with sickle-cell anemia, and they have children?

Their children will be heterozygous, because neither gene is dominant, so both express themselves.

28

What occurs when there are more than two different alleles of a gene for a particular trait?

Multiple allele inheritance

29

What is it called when genes influence not just one trait but several seemingly unrelated traits?

pleiotropy

30

What involves traits controlled by many different pairs of genes?

polygenic inheritance

31

What is an attempt to improve the human race through the control of hereditary factors?

eugenics