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Flashcards in Acute inflammation Deck (20):
1

What is acute inflammation

A fundamental response maintaining integrity of an organism

2

Name the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation

rubor - redness
calor - heat
tumor - swelling
dolor - pain
loss of function

3

What is the most important cardinal sign of inflammation

loss of function

4

What are the causes of acute inflammation

Microorganism infection
Injury to tissue
Unstable environment e.g. chemical change
Extreme physical conditions
Dead tissue
Hypersensitivity

5

What two physical changes occur in acute inflammation

Increase in radius of blood vessels
Increase in permeability of blood vessels

6

List the steps occurring in the local changes in blood vessels radius in acute inflammation

1. Arteries constrict shortly (appears white on skin)
2.The local arteries dilate
(now appears red due to increased blood flow to affected area)
3. Relaxation of vessel of smooth muscle


7

What is observed due to increased radius and why

redness and heat due to an increased blood flow directly from the heart

8

How is the permeability increased in acute inflammation

by chemical mediators

9

What happens when permeability is increased

endothelia leak protein rich fluid to extravascular space

10

What is the effect of increased permeability

exudation

11

What is the effect of exudation

odemia -accumulation of fluid in the extravascular system can lead discomfort and pain

12

Increasing the permeability to much can also increase what?

Viscosity

13

how does increased velocity of fluid affect the stasis of flow rate

slow flow

14

In normal laminar flow where is the WBC and RBC located

WBC in the middle
RBC round WBC

15

When the rate of flow increases in acute inflammation where do the neutrophils WBC migrate to and why

Near endothelium of blood vessel to emigrate out of blood vessels and move to site of infection (active process)

16

What is rouleux formation

RBC migrating towards the middle in loss of laminar flow

17

What are the three phases of neutrophils in acute inflammation when laminar flow is lost

1. Margination - move to endothelia
2. Pavementing - neutrophils adhere to endothelium
3. Emigration - squeeze between endothelia cells to extravascular tissue

18

How else do neutrophils leave blood vessels

Diapedesis, passively follow RBC when they leave

19

What is the benefits of acute inflammation

rapid response
Protection
neutrophils destroy pathogen
returns to normal afterwards

20

What localises process

plasma proteins