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Flashcards in carbohydrates Deck (70)
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1

Function of carbohydrates

Major energy source
Storage
Structural
Protective
Cell- cell communication

2

Storage from of carbohydrate is

glycogen

3

what is a monosaccharide

Monomer of 6 C sugars (simplest form)

4

examples of monosaccharides

glucose, glactose and fructose

5

disaccharides

from monomers that are linked by glycosidic bonds

6

how do covalent bonds from in disaccharides

hydroxyl group of one monosaccharide reacts with anomeric carbon of another monosaccharide

7

What’s an anomeric carbon

carbons mirror images of each other

8

What does anomeric carbon do

(stabilises glucose)
allows oxidation

9

anomeric carbon can be either

alpha or beta

10

Name the 3 disaccharides

Maltose
Lactose
Sucrose

11

reducing sugar can

readily oxidised

12

Breakdown form of starch is

maltose

13

How is lactose formed

glycosidic bond between galactose and glucose

14

Lactose and Maltose are both what?

Reducing sugar

15

Whats sugar is only made in plants

sucrose

16

if anomeric carbon is available for oxidation that makes a

reducing sugar

17

What is an example of a nonreducing sugar

sucrose

18

what is a polysaccharides?

polymer of reoccurring monosaccharide monomers

19

A polymer with a single monomeric species is called a

Homopolysaccharides

20

what are heteropolysaccharides

polymers that have two or more monomer species

21

Examples of polysaccharides

Starch and Glycogen

22

What are the two types of glucose polymers in starch

amylose and amylopectin

23

What are glucose residues linkage in amylose

α1→4

24

What is the difference of amylopectin to amylose

Has additional branched linkage α1→6 (every 24-30 residues)

25

Does starch have lots of reducing ends?

No has a lot of nonreducing ends

26

what structure does amylose and amylopectin form

alpha helix

27

What is the linkage in glycogen

glucose (α1→4) linked sub-units
(α1→6) branches every 8 to 12 residues

28

Why can glycogen release glucose so rapidly

Due to many branching of nonreducing ends

29

Polymers in solutions are

osmotically inactive

30

Glucose transformed into glycogen because

can store high concentration of glucose without impacting osmocity of cells

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