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Flashcards in Introduction to viruses Deck (27):
1

What size are viruses

Small: 20 – 400 nm diameter

2

What is the 3 structure of viruses

Icosahedral: 20 faces equilateral triangle
Helical: protein binds round DNA/RNA in a helical fashion
Complex: neither

3

What does it mean that viruses are Obligate intracellular pathogens

can only replicate inside host

4

What is the order of taxonomy

Order
Family
genus
species
(oh my freaking god sarah)

5

Viral families classified by

shape/symmetry
envelope
genetic structure
mode of replication

6

What do they spiral infections do for the virus

provide natural immunity

7

What is a virus composed of

nucleic acid
Lipid envelope
Protein capsid
Virion associated polymerase

8

Process of viral replication

attaches, uncoats RNA, replication of virus RNA in MRNA synthesis, virus protein synthesised, budding and related on the surface

9

What are the different viral transmissions

Blood borne
Sexual
Droplet
Airborne
Close contact
Vector borne
Zoonotic (Animals)

10

What isa droplet transmission; example

Large particle with small projection; Influenza,

11

What is a airborne transmission; example

Particle transferred in the air environment; Measels, chicken pox

12

What does coinfection of human and animal or bird lead to

may lead to recombination and generation of a new strain

13

Novel virus

Virus that has not be seen before

14

What does a clearance of viral infection mean

you don't get any immunity e.g. influenza

15

What immunity does Measels have

Long term immunity

16

What infection is HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C

Chronic infection

17

What is viral latency

Virus lies dormant, then something triggers the virus
eg. immune system supresors/ stress etc.

18

What is viral transformation

long term viral infection that alters gene expression e.g. cancer

19

Example of viral infections that cause transformation i.e. cancer

Epstein-Barr Virus --- glandular fever
Human Papillomavirus --- causes cervical cancer
Hepatitis B/C : hepatocellular carcinoma
Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus: Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma

20

What viruses are latent

Herpes Simplex Virus (coldsore)
Varicella Zoster Virusm (chicken pox)

21

How does viral infections cause cancer

Modulate cell cycle control
Modulating apotosis
Promote oxidation
(some persistent viral infections can cause persistent inflammatory processes which lead to cancer)

22

How do you detect a whole virus organism

electron microscopy or grown in cell culture

23

How do you detect part of virus organism (antigen, nucleic acid)

antigen detection detected from viruses immune response
DNA/RNA replication from PCR
Amplification of region target organism genome

24

What is antiviral therapy

treating viruses by binding to cell and preventing viral replication

25

Antivirals are used for

Prophyaxis - prevent disease
Pre-emptive therapy - treat before symptoms
Overt disease
Suppressive therapy - keep viral replication below the rate that causes tissue damage in an asymptomatic infected patient

26

How do you prevent viral infection

immunisation - vaccination
Antenatal screening

27

Human virus passage to animal is called

coinfection

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