Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

Medicine Term One > Chemotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemotherapy Deck (20):
1

How is chemotherapy delivered

Oral
IV

2

What is the aims of chemotherapy

Improve survival
halt progression of cancer
Improve quality of life

3

What are the chemotoxic agents

alkylating agent
anti metabolites
anti mitotic metabolites
Mitotic spindle poisoning - taxanes and vinca alkaloids

4

How do alkylating agents work in chemotherapy

alkyl group covalently bind to DNA stop DNA polymerase from passing along during synthesis and prevent replication of cancer

5

How do antimetabolites in chemotherapy work

Prevents DNA synthesis

6

How do antimetabolites prevent DNA synthesis

incorporated into new nuclear material
bind irreversibly with vital enzymes and inhibit cell division

7

What is an example of an antimetabolite

methotextrate

8

What is an example of an incorporated new nuclear material in antimetabolites

incorporate fluoridated nucleoside in place of normal nucleoside

9

How do anti mitotic antibiotics work in chemotherapy

inhibit RNA and DNA synthesis

10

How do anti mitotic antibiotics inhibit RNA and DNA synthesis

-free radicals disrupt DNA chain and prevent mitosis
-Alyation blocking DNA replication
-Membrane binding increases permeabilty to various ions -Metal ion chelating resulting in cytotoxcity compounds

11

What are two different chemotaxis that promote mitotic spindle poison

Taxanes
Vinca alkaloids

12

How do taxanes work in chemotherapy

promote spindles and ‘freeze’ cells at that stage of cycles

13

How do vinca alkaloids work in chemotherapy


bind to tubuli and block microtubule formation and spindle formation

14

Combination chemotherapy increases what

drugs efficacy

15

What are the two ways drugs can be combined in therapy

Drugs with different mechanism actions
Drugs with dissimilar toxicity profile (both not toxic)

16

What two cancers can be treated with hormone therapies

Prostate
Breast

17

What hormones are used in the therapy of breast cancer

anti-oestrogen tamoxifen
aromatase inhibitor

18

What hormone is used in the therapy of prostate cancer

anti -adrogen

19

What are examples of targeted drugs in chemotherapy

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)
Vascular endothelial receptor (VEGF)
Bevacizumab (Avastin)

20

What are the side effect of chemotherapy

• alopecia - hair loss
• pulmonary fibrosis - lung scars
• cardiotoxicity - muscle damage
• neuropathy
• diarrhoea