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Flashcards in Principles of immunisation Deck (24)
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1
Q

What is natural active immunity

A

Your body own immune response

2
Q

What is naturally passive immunity

A

Mother to child placental transferal of antibodies

3
Q

What is artificial passive immunity

A

Direct antibodies

Transferal of T cells

4
Q

What is artificially active immunity

A

Vaccination

5
Q

When would you give someone artificially passive immunity

A

for rapid response on past exposure

6
Q

Define Vaccination

A

administrating antigenic material to stimulate immune response so memory cells are produced and therefore in second exposure immune system is effective and rapid

7
Q

What is the benefit of active immunity

A

memory cells produced

8
Q

What antibody is first in response to an infection

A

IgM

9
Q

What antibody is ready for secondary exposure

A

IgG

10
Q

How are live organism made less pathogenic to be able to give as a vaccination

A

They are attenuated by repeated passage in cell culture generations

11
Q

What is the disadvantage to attenuated live organisms

A

to dangerous, as can revert back to virulent form and cause disease

12
Q

Name all the different types of vaccinations

A
Live attenuated vaccine 
Inactivated vaccine 
Acellular vaccine
Toxiod vaccine 
Subunit vaccine 
Conjugate vaccine 
DNA vaccines
13
Q

What are inactived vaccines

A

When a dead disease ridden microbe is injected stimulating an immune response

14
Q

What is the advantage and disadvantage of inactivated vaccine

A

adv. More stable than live vaccine

dis. Stimulate a weaker immune system response than do live vaccines (may need several boosters)

15
Q

Define what an adjuvant is

A

Enhances bodies immune response to an antigen

16
Q

What is a cellular vaccine

A

Give the antigenic part of the disease causing organism

17
Q

Advantages and disadvantages to cellular vaccine

A

Adv. cannot cause the disease

Dis. Needs booster shots, as doesn’t produce strong immune repose

18
Q

Who is the cellular vaccination most beneficial to

A

immunocompromised patients

19
Q

When is Toxoid Vaccination given and how does it work

A

Used when bacterial toxin is main cause of illness
patient is given an inactivated toxin (treated with formalin)
that tigers immune reopens to produce antibodies to block toxin

20
Q

What is a Subunit vaccine and its advantage

A

Use the bit of a disease causing organism that stimulates the immune response e.g. epitope
(lowers adverse reaction)

21
Q

What is a conjugate vaccine

A

Teaches immune system to recognise polysaccharide of a disease causing organism

22
Q

What is a DNA vaccine

A

Inject genes of disease into the body, highjacking intracellularly so cell surface secretes the DNAs antigen and displays is

23
Q

Advantage of DNA vaccine

A

evokes a strong antibody response

cannot cause the disease

24
Q

What adjuvant is commonly used in humans and why?

A

Aluminium salts
Cause only mild inflammatory response
generate memory

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