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Flashcards in Principles of immunisation Deck (24)
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1
Q
What is natural active immunity
A
Your body own immune response
2
Q
What is naturally passive immunity
A
Mother to child placental transferal of antibodies
3
Q
What is artificial passive immunity
A
Direct antibodies
Transferal of T cells
4
Q
What is artificially active immunity
A
Vaccination
5
Q
When would you give someone artificially passive immunity
A
for rapid response on past exposure
6
Q
Define Vaccination
A
administrating antigenic material to stimulate immune response so memory cells are produced and therefore in second exposure immune system is effective and rapid
7
Q
What is the benefit of active immunity
A
memory cells produced
8
Q
What antibody is first in response to an infection
A
IgM
9
Q
What antibody is ready for secondary exposure
A
IgG
10
Q
How are live organism made less pathogenic to be able to give as a vaccination
A
They are attenuated by repeated passage in cell culture generations
11
Q
What is the disadvantage to attenuated live organisms
A
to dangerous, as can revert back to virulent form and cause disease
12
Q
Name all the different types of vaccinations
A
Live attenuated vaccine
Inactivated vaccine
Acellular vaccine
Toxiod vaccine
Subunit vaccine
Conjugate vaccine
DNA vaccines
13
Q
What are inactived vaccines
A
When a dead disease ridden microbe is injected stimulating an immune response
14
Q
What is the advantage and disadvantage of inactivated vaccine
A
adv. More stable than live vaccine
dis. Stimulate a weaker immune system response than do live vaccines (may need several boosters)
15
Q
Define what an adjuvant is
A
Enhances bodies immune response to an antigen
16
Q
What is a cellular vaccine
A
Give the antigenic part of the disease causing organism
17
Q
Advantages and disadvantages to cellular vaccine
A
Adv. cannot cause the disease
Dis. Needs booster shots, as doesn't produce strong immune repose
18
Q
Who is the cellular vaccination most beneficial to
A
immunocompromised patients
19
Q
When is Toxoid Vaccination given and how does it work
A
Used when bacterial toxin is main cause of illness
patient is given an inactivated toxin (treated with formalin)
that tigers immune reopens to produce antibodies to block toxin
20
Q
What is a Subunit vaccine and its advantage
A
Use the bit of a disease causing organism that stimulates the immune response e.g. epitope
(lowers adverse reaction)
21
Q
What is a conjugate vaccine
A
Teaches immune system to recognise polysaccharide of a disease causing organism
22
Q
What is a DNA vaccine
A
Inject genes of disease into the body, highjacking intracellularly so cell surface secretes the DNAs antigen and displays is
23
Q
Advantage of DNA vaccine
A
evokes a strong antibody response
cannot cause the disease
24
Q
What adjuvant is commonly used in humans and why?
A
Aluminium salts
Cause only mild inflammatory response
generate memory

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