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Flashcards in Acute inflammation 2 Deck (32):
1

What are the immediate systemic effects of acute inflammation

Pyrexia
Nausea, feeling unwell etc
neutrophilia - raised WBC count

2

What are the long term systemic effects of acute inflammation

lymphadenopathy - enlargement of lymph's
Weight loss
anemia

3

What are the five possible outcomes of acute inflammation

Resolution
Suppuration
Organisation
Dissemination
Chronic Inflammation

4

What is the best possible outcome of acute inflammation

Resolution as inflammation is resolved and everything returns to normal

5

What is Suppuration

Pus formation

6

What is pus composed of

dead tissue, organisms, exudate, neutrophils, fibrin, red cells, debris

7

What surrounds pus

Pyogenic membrane

8

What causes an abscess

collection of pus under pressure

9

What happens when multiloculated abscess is burst

pus bursts through pyogenic membrane and forms be cavity

10

What happens when pus bursts through single locule

Pus bursts out and then collapses

11

What is empyema

Pus in a hollow viscus

12

What is pyaemia

Pus discharge into blood stream

13

What is Organisation

Healing and repair of acute inflammation leading to fibrosis (scars)

14

What tissue causes the formation of scars

granulation

15

How is granulation tissue formed

New capillaries
Fibroblasts + collagen
Macrophages

16

What is fibrosis

the thickening and scarring of connective tissue

17

What is dissemination

Spread of acute inflammation to the bloodstream causing patient to become septic

18

Define: Septicaemia

Growth of bacteria in the blood

19

What are the clinical features of septic shock

peripheral vasodilatation
tachycardia - high heart rate
hypotension - low blood pressure
often pyrexia
sometimes haemorrhagic skin rash

20

How does tacycardia occur in septic shock

Mediators enter plasma and cause vasodilation decreasing systemic vascular resistance, so stroke volume decreases therefore to maintain cardiac output heart rate must increases

21

How is pyrexia caused in septic shock

By bacterial endotoxin acting on hypothalamus

22

What happens when compensation fails in septic shock

The vascular resistance to low, BP falls and cardiac output cannot be maintained

23

What is the result of septic shock

Tissue hypoxia (death)
Loss of organ function
Haemorrhage
Can be fatal

24

What is mediators

important substances control the processes of acute inflammation

25

Where can mediators be found

endothelial cells (lining the blood vessels)
Released from cells
Inacrive molecules in the plasma

26

What are the effects of mediators

Vasodilation
Increased permeability
Cause adhesion of neutrophils
chemotaxis
itch and pain

27

What is the two roles of plasma protein in inflammation

forms fibrin and clots exudate
immunoglobulins in plasma specific for antigen

28

What do cell surface mediators do

Help neutrophils stick

29

Give examples of molecules released as mediators

Histamine
Serotonin (platelets)
Cytokines
Nitric oxide - smooth muscle relaxation
oxygen free radicals

30

Blood coagulating pathway which clots fibrinogen in exudate is in dynamic balance with what other pathway

Fibrinolysis
breaks down fibrin to helps maintain blood supply

31

What does the kinin system do

trigger pain

32

What does the complement cascade do

Increases permeability
Chemotaxis
phagocytosis
cell breakdown