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Medicine Term One > Storing using genetic information > Flashcards

Flashcards in Storing using genetic information Deck (25)
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1
Q

Define phenotype

A

the outward physical genes expressed

2
Q

Define genotype

A

The full hereditary information of an organism

3
Q

What is DNA a chain of

A

Nucleotide monomers

4
Q

What is a nucleotide composed of

A

Deoxyribose
Base
Phosphate group

5
Q

Why is it deoxyribose the sugar in DNA

A

Bonds are more attracted to each other due to reduced polarity making DNA more stable as harder to separate

6
Q

what is the structure of DNA

and the direction

A

Double helix

right hand twist

7
Q

What are the four bases of DNA

A

Adenine
Guanine
Thymine
Cytosine

8
Q

What are the bonds that join the bases

and What is the the pairing of DNA bases

A

Hydrogen
Adenine - thymine
Cytosine - guanine

9
Q

What maintains the shape of the DNA double helix

A

Sugar phosphate backbone

10
Q

Where does DNA replication take place

A

Nucleus

11
Q

What direction is DNA synthesis

A

5-3 direction

12
Q

What are the steps of DNA replication

A
  1. Enzymes break hydrogen bonds and DNA unwinds
  2. New nucleotide molecules pair with two DNA strands
  3. Replication occurs in 5-3 direction by enzyme DNA polymerase on leading strand
  4. Lagging strand replicated in fragments which are then joined by DNA ligase and DNA polymerase adding on Nucleotides
13
Q

What does it mean that DNA is bidirectional

A

5 prime to 3 prime DNA run antiparallel to each other

14
Q

What is the fragmentation called in DNA replication

A

okazaki

15
Q

How is DNA replication semi-conservative

A

one half of DNA made is new where the other strand is old DNA

16
Q

What are the codon region in DNA

A

exons

17
Q

How is the base sequence of DNA transcribed into RNA

A
  1. mRNA enters nucleus and transcribes DNA with nucleotides coding only with the exons
  2. mRNA then is transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm
18
Q

What is it called when mRNA only codes exons and eliminates introns

A

alternative splicing

19
Q

What happens post transcription

A

The base sequences frames are read and segmented into each 3 bases create a codon specific for a particular amino acid

20
Q

What happens in the translation of mRNA

A
  1. mRNA binds to ribosomes (rRNA) in the cytoplasm
  2. tRNA binds anticodons to mRNA coding sequence
  3. tRNA then brings in specific amino acids
  4. passes amino acid along forming peptide chain
  5. Peptide chain is then transported to golgi apparatus where they are synthesised and packaged into proteins
21
Q

Where is ribosome/rRNA produced

A

nucleus

22
Q

What is degeneracy

A

more than one codon codes for an amionacid

23
Q

What can a single point mutation cause

A

dysfunctional protein

24
Q

Example of a single point mutation

A

sickle cell anaemia

25
Q

what is a polysome

A

several ribosomes translating mRNA at the same time

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