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Flashcards in Therapeutics option Deck (35):
1

What are prevention methods

diet
stop people from smoking
screening
genetics
medication

2

What is an example of a screening test

cervical cancer smear test

3

What are more controversial screenings

prostate cancer : PSA blood test
lung cancer : MR / CT scanning
breath test

4

What is given to previous Head and neck, or lung cancer patients to prevent reoccurrence

give anti-oxidant supplements

5

What can treatment either be

systemic
local

6

What is examples of local treatment

radiotherapy
surgery

7

What does surgery anatomically provide

anatomical clearance

8

what does radiotherapy anatomically provide

anatomical coverage

9

What is the benefit of radiotherapy compared to surgery

Maintain function or appearance
inoperable lesions - remove when surgery risk is to high
can make surgery become possible

10

What is the five Rs of radiobiology

radiosensitivity
repair
re-population
re- oxygenation
re-assortment

11

Define Radiosensitivity

relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs or organisms to the harmful effect of ionizing radiation

12

When are cells most radiosensitive

Cells are least sensitive when in the S phase, then the G1 phase, then the G2 phase, and most sensitive in the M phase of the cell cycle

13

What cells are most sensitive to radiotherapy

tumour cells

14

what is the effect if tumour cells are hypoxic

less sensitive to X-rays because most of their effects are mediated by the free radicals produced by ionizing oxygen (tumour doesnt decrease as much)

15

What do the five Rs of radiobiology provide

a means of understanding the success or failure of localised radiotherapy

16

What factor effects radio sensitivity

age eg. over 40 radio sensitivity decreases

17

What can prevents repopulation and repair of tumour

Intense treatment with short time frame

18

What can radiotherapy be combined with

chemotherapy

19

What role does radiotherapy play in palliate care

relive symptoms without curing
of pain, bleeding or swollen limbs

20

what is systemic treatment beneficial for

widespread disease

21

What is a negative possible effect of systemic treatment

widespread toxicity

22

What is the four different scenarios that chemotherapy is used and why

‘curative’ -
palliative
adjuvant
‘neoadjuvant’

23

When is a curative chemotherapy used

for complete remission, eliminate all cancer cells

24

When is palliative chemotherapy used

for terminal cancer patients to relieve symptoms

25

when is adjuvant chemotherapy used

used after all of the known and visible cancer has been removed surgically or with radiation

26

When is neoadjuvant chemotherapy used

used before surgery to shrink tumour so its operable

27

What is the two decisions involved in chemotherapy

toxicity vs benefit
‘cost’ vs benefit

28

What does it mean if a breast cancer tumour is oestrogen positive

its expresses oestrogen receptors

29

What is a hormonal treatment used for breast cancers expressing oestrogen receptors

tamoxifen

30

What is a hormonal therapy used for the treatment of prostate cancer and what does it do

LHRH antagonist lower testosterone levels

31

Hormonal therapy is used when

tumour growth is dependent on hormonal expression e.g. in breast cancer and prostate cancer

32

What are the three immune therapies

monoclonal antibodies
programmed cell death pathway
CAR T-cell therapy

33

What does the immune therapy of programmed cell death do

use immune system to attack foreign cancer cells

34

What is CAR T cell therapy

Artificial t cell receptors which are given a specific cell killing function against cancer cells

35

What is the role of monoclonal antibodies

joined to a chemotherapy drug or to a radioactive particle and take substance directly to cancer cell - stop the masking of cancer