Autonomic Nervous System (plus pharmacology of ANS and NMJ) Flashcards Preview

Medicine Term One > Autonomic Nervous System (plus pharmacology of ANS and NMJ) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System (plus pharmacology of ANS and NMJ) Deck (91)
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1
Q
What nerves does the autonomic NS respond from
A
Efferent nerves (motor neurons)
2
Q
Whats Voluntary, somatic or autonomic
A
somatic
3
Q
Whats a ganglion
A
group of nerve cell bodies linked by synapse passing on AP O----C O-----C
4
Q
Whats the swelling on a nerve fibre
A
Ganglion
5
Q
Somatic differences to Autonomic
A
Specialised NMJ, isotropic receptors, always excited the cell,
6
Q
What does Somatic NS always have
A
a large endplate potential
7
Q
What receptors do Autonomic NS have
A
Metabotropic
8
Q
what are Metabotropic receptors
A
G protein-coupled receptors
9
Q
What does Autonomic system split into
A
Parasympathetic and sympathetic
10
Q
Parasympathetic where does ganglia lie
A
Ganglia lies closer to target, therefore long preganglionic fibres
11
Q
Postganglionic fibre longer found in
A
Sympathetic
12
Q
Sympathetic system exits from
A
Thoriac and Lumnar regions of the spinal chord T1-12 L1-2
13
Q
White rams =
A
preganglionic fibres
14
Q
Grey rams =
A
postganglionic fibres
15
Q
Ramus
A
Communication branch
16
Q
All ganglion fibres activated at same time by
A
convergence and divergence
17
Q
ACH works on what receptors
A
cholingeric
18
Q
Examples of cholingeric receptors
A
Nicotinic and muscarnic
19
Q
Parasympathetic release what NT at preganglionic fibre on to what receptor
A
ACH on to nicotinic
20
Q
A muscarnic receptor is
A
G protein coupled
21
Q
Sympathetic post ganglionic fibre releases whats NT on to what receptor
A
Noradrenaline on to either alpha or Beta receptor
22
Q
Parasympathetic post ganglionic fibre releases whats NT on to what receptor
A
ACH on muscarnic receptors
23
Q
At a preganglionic fibre ACH is released on to what receptor into what NS
A
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic
24
Q
Alpha 1 receptors cause
A
Contraction
25
Q
Beta 2 receptors cause
A
Dilation
26
Q
Noradrenaline NT only acts on what receptors
A
adregeneric
27
Q
Examples of adregenric receptors
A
Alpha and Beta
28
Q
Whats are Muscarnic receptors responsible for
A
smooth muscle
29
Q
Parasympathetic NS exits spinal chord from
A
cranial
30
Q
Sympathetic NS acts on salivary gland release what NT instead
A
ACH instead of noradrenaline
31
Q
Non adregenric non cholingeric receptors (NANC) examples
A
Peptided and Nitric Oxide
32
Q
Whats do NANC do
A
are correlated or released on their own
33
Q
Sympathetic NS can release noradrenaline directly into (what does the show)
A
the blood, hormonal properties
34
Q
Cholineric receptors are
A
ionotropic type receptors with an integral ion channel
35
Q
Cillary Muscles contract in the eye, constricting pupil this is due to
A
ACH acting on muscarnic receptor in parasymathetic NS
36
Q
For the Eye to focus close up
A
Cillary muscle contract and radial muscle dilate
37
Q
The work of the Cillary muscle and the radial muscle in the eye is called
A
muscarinic anatgonist
38
Q
Eyes Dilate and focus far away by
A
noradrenlaine acting on B2 to relax the lens and A1 constricting the iris, dilating pupil allowing more light in to see far away
39
Q
What makes the heart contract
A
pacemaker cells depolarise
40
Q
Whats increase heart rate
A
noradrenaline acting on the beta receptors
41
Q
Parasympathetic NS has little effect on what in the heart
A
strength of hearts contractions
42
Q
B2 agonsits in the lungs e.g. and function
A
Salbutamol, dilates airways
43
Q
Parasympathetic NS on the eye activates and causes what to the spinchter
A
Activates muscarinic receptors on sphincter muscle
Contracting & makes pupil smaller
44
Q
Parasymatheric has what effect on Blood Vessels
A
No effect
45
Q
Sympathetic NS alpha receptors cause what to happen in BV
A
Cause smooth muscle to contract in blood vessels
46
Q
What cause the BV to dilate and increase blood flow
A
Noradrenaline acting on Beta receptors
47
Q
why due to Tonic activity does parasympathetic have little effect
A
means there is always an ongoing activity hence why parasympathetic has little activity e.g. smooth muscle always a little but contacted
48
Q
Parasympathetic on the Gut
A
muscarnic receptors on gut wall increase gut mobility and muscarnic receptors on pancreas increase enzyme secretion
49
Q
Single intervention means
A
Controlled by tonic activity
50
Q
sympathetic system stimulates what two procedures in energy stores and increase what
A
glycogenolyis & gluconeogenesis
Increases lipolysis
51
Q
what is dual intervention
A
innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
52
Q
Example of dual intervention
A
Salivary gland, Parasymapthetic releases watery solution whilst sympathetic releases tick secretion rich in enzymes
53
Q
What do Beta receptors trigger in the bladder
A
relax smooth muscle of bladder wall, therefore reducing pressure
54
Q
sympathetic NS alpha receptors in the bladder cause
A
contract smooth muscle of sphincter and prevent urinations
55
Q
Whats controls the autonomic NS
A
Autonomic reflexes hypothalamus
56
Q
examples of autonomic receptors
A
baroreceptors detect blood pressure then influence activity
57
Q
What does hypothalamus do
A
coordinates autonomic, somatic and endocrine activity in a defence response
58
Q
Dual Intervention of reproductive tract
A
sympathetic causes ejaculation as Parasympathtic causes erection
59
Q
A dual intervention has
A
complimentary effects
60
Q
How can you stop efficiency of NMJ synapse
A
stop the Ach being packaged into the vesicles
Block Voltage gated calcium channels
Block vesicles fusing with receptors
Competitive antagonist stop ach activating receptor
61
Q
Whats blocks choline transport
A
hemicholinium
62
Q
what does black widow spider toxin
A
blocks the voltage gated Ca2+ channels
63
Q
Depolarising nicotinic receptors does what
A
continue to open cells, keeping cell depolorised therefore can't fire AP, (short lasting action, can cause damage)
64
Q
Increases activity of NMJ synapse
A
Prolong AP,
Block acetylcholinesterase
65
Q
How do you prolong an AP in NMJ Synapse
A
Increase the number of calcium ions, increasing response
66
Q
Whats happens when you block acetylcholinesterase
A
ach hangs around synaptic cleft therefore activates more receptors and increases transmissions
67
Q
why would you want to block NMJ synapse
A
paralyse patients during surgery or ECT
68
Q
Non-depolarising or depolarising blockers used for paralysis during
A
surgical procedures
electroconvulsive therapy
controlling spasms in tetanus
69
Q
Botulinum toxin used for
A
treating muscle spasm
cosmetic procedures
70
Q
Anti-cholinesterases used for
A
treating myasthenic syndromes
reversing action of non-depolarising blockers
countering botulinum poisoning
71
Q
what includes both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems
A
connections between the preganglionic and the postganglionic autonomic fibres ach--nicotinic
72
Q
Whats receptors is present more in ganglionic receptor than NMJ receptor
A
nicotinic
73
Q
what is ganglia sensitive to that blocks ach channel
A
hexamethoneuns
74
Q
Why aren't there any clinical applications to modifying ganglionic transmission
A
as drugs would modulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglionic transmission, therefore producing a range of complex signals
75
Q
whats do most therapeutically drugs target
A
postsynaptic muscarinic receptors
76
Q
Muscarinic agonists and antagonists
A
mimic or block effects caused by parasympathetic ns
77
Q
whats is glaucoma
A
raised intraocular pressure
78
Q
alpha agonists work the same usually as
A
beta blockers
79
Q
what do alpha agonists and beta blockers do in glaucoma
A
reduce the production of the aqueous humour fluid in the eyeball
80
Q
For glaucoma what does a muscarinic agonist do
A
contract the ciliary muscle supporting the lens,contract sphincter muscle of cell and seem to open up the trabecular network so aqueous humour drains through
81
Q
How can you manipulate postganglionic sympathetic transmission
A
By manipulating release of noradrenaline and adrenergic
82
Q
How do you inhibit postsynaptic sympathetic transmissions
A
Block enzyme producing noradrenaline
Block transporter that fills vesicles
introduce a fals transmitter
Block alpha/beta postsynaptic receptors
activate inhibitory presynaptic autoreceptors
inhibit volatge gate calcium channel
83
Q
What enzyme is blocked in the production of noradrenaline
A
dopadecarboxylase (dopa-dopamine)
84
Q
increase efficiency of postganglionic sympathetic transmission
A
stimulate noradrenaline release
inhibit uptake of noradrenaline from cleft back into neurones
Activate postsynaptic receptors
85
Q
Indirectly triggers the release noradrenaline is called
A
sympathomimetics
86
Q
what does cocaine do
A
inhibits uptake carrier leaving noradrenaline in synpatic cleft to activate postsynaptic receptors
87
Q
Noradrenaline breakdown
A
transmitter unactivated and only broken down in cells
88
Q
what are alpha 2 agonists clinical applications
A
treatment of hypertension
89
Q
what are beta2 agonists clinical applications
A
treatment of asthma e.g. salbutamol
90
Q
what are alpha 1 agonists clinical applications
A
used as decongestants and to dilate the pupil
91
Q
what are beta1 antagonists clinical applications
A
treatment of hypertension, angina and glaucoma

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