Anti microbial - general principles of clinical usage and role of laboratory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anti microbial - general principles of clinical usage and role of laboratory Deck (16)
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1
Q

What are the four patient characteristics that have to be taken into account when prescribing antibiotics

A

Age
Renal function
Liver function
Pregnancy

2
Q

When should Antimicrobial be administrated

A

for prophylaxis and therapy

3
Q

When can prophylaxis be used clinically

A

when patient is exposed to other patients with high highly communicable disease
patient is subjected to surgical procedures

4
Q

what is prophylaxis

A

the administration of antimicrobials to prevent future occurrence in infection

5
Q

What is combination therapy and why is it useful

A

Cover mixed infections by more than one organism -

Benefits - can sometime enhance the effect and minimise development of resistance to any one agent

6
Q

What are the possible outcomes of combined antimicrobials

A

effects are addictive
antagonistic - combine effect is less
synergists - combined effect is greater

7
Q

How do penicillin and gentamicin acts as synergists in the treatment of streptococcal infection

A

penicillin breaks down streptococcal wall allowing gentamicin access to ribosomes (gentamicin usually impermeable)

8
Q

What combination can make drugs addictive and a synergist

A

Two bactericidal or two bacteriostatic

9
Q

What does the combination of one bacteriostatic and one bactericidal drug leads to what effect of the drug

A

antagonism

10
Q

What are examples of bacteriostatic drugs

A

macrolides,
tertracyclines
trimethoprim

11
Q

For a antimicrobial to have clinical use what must it be able to do

A

penetrate site of infection

12
Q

What do vancomysin and gentamysin both have

A

low therapeutic index

13
Q

What are the two reasons for monitoring serum levels

A

ensure therapeutic levels have been achieved

ensure levels aren’t toxic

14
Q

How is vancomycin serum levels measured

A

By measuring a trough level immediately before does is given

15
Q

How is the antimicrobial sensitivity tested

A

automated method- Growth of individual is measured in the presence of different concentrations of each antibiotic and the likely MIC (i.e. when bacteria growth is inhibited) of the antibiotic for that organism is calculated

16
Q

What is the simplest way to measure the MIC of one antibiotic against the other

A

E-test - test strip

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