Tumour pathology 1&2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tumour pathology 1&2 Deck (39)
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1
Q
Define tumour
A
Abnormal growing mass of tissue
2
Q
What are the two types of tumours
A
Benign and Malignant
3
Q
Define cancer
A
The ability to invade into adjacent tissue and to spread and grow at other sites within the body
4
Q
What is a benign tumour called in Glandular and Squamos tissue
A
Adenoma
Squamos papiloma
5
Q
Where does no benign form of tumour exist but only malignant
A
White blood cells
Lymphoid tissue
CNS
PNS
6
Q
What is the benign nomenclature of bone, fat and fibrous tissue
A
Osteoma
Lipoma
Fibroma
7
Q
In epithelia tissue what is a malignant tumour called
A
Adeno Carcinoma
Squamos carcinoma
8
Q
What is a malignant tumour called in WBC
A
Leukaemia
9
Q
What is a malignant tumour called in lymphoid tissue
A
Lymphoma
10
Q
What is a malignant tumour called in CNS
A
astrocytoma
11
Q
What is a malignant tumour called in Peripheral NS
A
schwannoma
12
Q
What are germ cell tumours called
A
Teratoma
13
Q
What teratoma is benign
A
Ovarian
14
Q
What teratoma is malignant
A
testicular
15
Q
What are the features of Benign tumours
A
Non invasive growth pattern
encapsulated
Does not spread
16
Q
What are the features of Malignant tumours
A
Invasive growth pattern
No capsule
Spread of cancer
Loss of normal function
17
Q
What are the 4 properties of cancer cells
A
Altered genetics
Altered cellular function
Abnormal morphology
Independent growth
18
Q
What altered cellular functions result in tumour formation
A
Loss of tumour suppressor genes
Gain function of oncogenes
19
Q
What is an oncogene
A
A mutation of a proto-oncongne that stimulates cell division
20
Q
How is cellular function altered in cancer cells
A
Loss of cell- cell/ cell - matrix adhesion
21
Q
What are the three tumour biomarkers
A
Onco fetal protein
oncogenes
growth factor and receptors
22
Q
What is a onco fetal protein
A
A protein that is showed expression in prenatal but switched of post natal until tumour present
23
Q
What is often present and abnormal in cancer cells
A
mitoses
24
Q
How are tumour biomarkers used
A
To diagnose, prognose and predict treatment
25
Q
What is the main abnormality in cancer cells
A
Morphology
26
Q
Define Angiogenesis
A
Cell growth
27
Q
What happens in tumour angiogenesis to sustain tumour growth
A
New blood vessel formation
28
Q
what do blood vessels provide tumour with
A
route to enter cancer cells into circulation
29
Q
What regulates tumour growth
A
apoptosis
30
Q
What two ways can cancer be spread by
A
Invasiveness - surrounding tissue
Metastasis - other parts of the body
31
Q
How are secondary tumours produced
A
through metastasis
32
Q
What are the routes cancer can be spread
A
Local
Lymphatic
Blood
Trans colomic spread
33
Q
What is the pathway of local spread
A
malignant tumour
invasion into connective tissue
Invasion into lymph/BV
34
Q
What is transcoelomic spread of cancer
A
spread of tumour cells across bod cavities
35
Q
What size must a tumour roughly be to be clinically found
A
5mm
36
Q
What pleural cavity does transcoelomic metastasis occur
A
Lungs
37
Q
Where in the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity does transcoelomic metastasis occur
A
stomach, colon and ovary
38
Q
What is metastasis not related to
A
Blood flow
39
Q
Common sites of metastasis
A
Liver
Adrenal gland
Brain
Lung
Bone

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