Tumour pathology 1&2 Flashcards Preview

Medicine Term One > Tumour pathology 1&2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour pathology 1&2 Deck (39)
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1
Q

Define tumour

A

Abnormal growing mass of tissue

2
Q

What are the two types of tumours

A

Benign and Malignant

3
Q

Define cancer

A

The ability to invade into adjacent tissue and to spread and grow at other sites within the body

4
Q

What is a benign tumour called in Glandular and Squamos tissue

A

Adenoma

Squamos papiloma

5
Q

Where does no benign form of tumour exist but only malignant

A

White blood cells
Lymphoid tissue
CNS
PNS

6
Q

What is the benign nomenclature of bone, fat and fibrous tissue

A

Osteoma
Lipoma
Fibroma

7
Q

In epithelia tissue what is a malignant tumour called

A

Adeno Carcinoma

Squamos carcinoma

8
Q

What is a malignant tumour called in WBC

A

Leukaemia

9
Q

What is a malignant tumour called in lymphoid tissue

A

Lymphoma

10
Q

What is a malignant tumour called in CNS

A

astrocytoma

11
Q

What is a malignant tumour called in Peripheral NS

A

schwannoma

12
Q

What are germ cell tumours called

A

Teratoma

13
Q

What teratoma is benign

A

Ovarian

14
Q

What teratoma is malignant

A

testicular

15
Q

What are the features of Benign tumours

A

Non invasive growth pattern
encapsulated
Does not spread

16
Q

What are the features of Malignant tumours

A

Invasive growth pattern
No capsule
Spread of cancer
Loss of normal function

17
Q

What are the 4 properties of cancer cells

A

Altered genetics
Altered cellular function
Abnormal morphology
Independent growth

18
Q

What altered cellular functions result in tumour formation

A

Loss of tumour suppressor genes

Gain function of oncogenes

19
Q

What is an oncogene

A

A mutation of a proto-oncongne that stimulates cell division

20
Q

How is cellular function altered in cancer cells

A

Loss of cell- cell/ cell - matrix adhesion

21
Q

What are the three tumour biomarkers

A

Onco fetal protein
oncogenes
growth factor and receptors

22
Q

What is a onco fetal protein

A

A protein that is showed expression in prenatal but switched of post natal until tumour present

23
Q

What is often present and abnormal in cancer cells

A

mitoses

24
Q

How are tumour biomarkers used

A

To diagnose, prognose and predict treatment

25
Q

What is the main abnormality in cancer cells

A

Morphology

26
Q

Define Angiogenesis

A

Cell growth

27
Q

What happens in tumour angiogenesis to sustain tumour growth

A

New blood vessel formation

28
Q

what do blood vessels provide tumour with

A

route to enter cancer cells into circulation

29
Q

What regulates tumour growth

A

apoptosis

30
Q

What two ways can cancer be spread by

A

Invasiveness - surrounding tissue

Metastasis - other parts of the body

31
Q

How are secondary tumours produced

A

through metastasis

32
Q

What are the routes cancer can be spread

A

Local
Lymphatic
Blood
Trans colomic spread

33
Q

What is the pathway of local spread

A

malignant tumour
invasion into connective tissue
Invasion into lymph/BV

34
Q

What is transcoelomic spread of cancer

A

spread of tumour cells across bod cavities

35
Q

What size must a tumour roughly be to be clinically found

A

5mm

36
Q

What pleural cavity does transcoelomic metastasis occur

A

Lungs

37
Q

Where in the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity does transcoelomic metastasis occur

A

stomach, colon and ovary

38
Q

What is metastasis not related to

A

Blood flow

39
Q

Common sites of metastasis

A
Liver 
Adrenal gland 
Brain 
Lung 
Bone

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