Antimicrobrial chemotherapy Spectrum of commonly used agents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antimicrobrial chemotherapy Spectrum of commonly used agents Deck (37)
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1
Q

List the different B-lactams Penicillins

A
Benzyl Penicillin
Amoxicillin 
Co-amoxiclav 
Flulcoxacilin 
Piperacillin 
Carbapenenms
2
Q

What spectrum does Benzyl Penicillin cover and how is it taken

A

Largely again gram positive organisms e.g.
pneumoccal, and strep pryogenes
Gram negative exception = meningoccal
Parentally IV

3
Q

When is amoxicillin the best choice and how is it taken

A

Strepococci
Some coliforms
Orally

4
Q

What is Co-amoxiclav a combination of and what spectrum does it cover

A

Combination of amoxicillin and B-lactamse enzyme inhibitor (clavulanic acid)
Covers B-lactamase producing coliforms

5
Q

When is flucloxacillin the first choice for treatment and why

A

Staphylococcal infections

as is resistant to the actions of B-Lactamase

6
Q

What are resistant strains of flucoxacillin called

A

methicillin resistant staph aureas (MRSA)

7
Q

What spectrum does Piperacillin cover, and what good

A

Broad spectrum including Gram negative cover - pseudomonas species
Good anti-anaerobic activity

8
Q

What is the name of the combination of piperaciliin and B-lactamse inhibitor tazobactam

A

Tazocin

9
Q

What are carbapenems and name two of them

A

Close relative of penicillin

Imipenem and Meropenem

10
Q

What kind of spectrum does carbapenems have

A

Active against most bacteria including aerobes

11
Q

How does the antibiotic cephalosporins activity differ in gram negative compared to gram positive bacteria

A

Activity against gram negative organisms increase form first generation compared to activity of gram positives decreasing in activity from first generation

12
Q

What is produced from third generation of gram negative cephalosporins and first generation from gram positive cephalosporins

A
- = Ceftriaxone 
\+ = staphylococci
13
Q

What does cephalosporins encourage

A

Clostridium difficile infection (thrush)

14
Q

What is the spectrum for ahminoglycosides

A
Gram negative organisms 
Most staphlococci (gram +)
15
Q

How are all ahminoglycosides taken and what is the most effective one

A

Parentally

Gentamicin

16
Q

The two glycopeptides - Vanomysin and teicoplanin’s spectrums are

A

activity against only gram positive organisms (aerobic and anaerobic)

17
Q

The macrolides, clarithromycin and erythromycin spectrums are

A

actively against gram positive organisms

18
Q

When are Macrolides used

A

as alternative to penicillin to those allergic

19
Q

What is the spectrum of Quinolones

A

active against nearly all gram negative organisms including pseudomonas
gram + staphylocci and streptoccoi

20
Q

What is the provides the only possibility of oral therapy

of pseudomonas

A

Quinolones

21
Q

Give an example of a new quinolone and what its active against

A

levofloxacin is active against pneumococci and organisms causing a typical pneumonia (treats pneumonia)

22
Q

What is miscellaneous antibiotics metronidazole used to treat

A

c.diff

23
Q

What at Metronidazoles effective against

A

anaerobes in both gram positive and negative

24
Q

What is fusidic acid only used for

A

anti - staphylococcal drug

25
Q

Staphylococcus aureas can develop a reistance easily to fusidic acid, so what should you do fusidic acid

A

Combine fusidic acid with other anti - staphylococcal drug like flucoxacillin

26
Q

What is trimethoprim used in treatment of

A

urinary infections

27
Q

What is the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole called

A

co-trimoxazole

28
Q

What do tetracyclines inhibit and what infections can they treat

A

bacterial protein synthesis

Genital tract and respiratory tract

29
Q

What is the only lincosamide antibiotic

A

clindamycin

30
Q

What does clindamycin have a good activity against

A

Gram positive organisms - staphylococci + streptococci

and anaerobes

31
Q

What is a good advantage of clindamycin

A

very good tissue penetration

32
Q

What is linezoid active against and how can it be given

A

MRSA

orally

33
Q

What is daptomycin is active against what

and maybe useful in in the treatment of what serious infections

A

gram postive bacteria

MRSA

34
Q

What is fidaxomicin bactericidial working against

A

c. difficile

35
Q

What agents are used only for the treatment of lower UTIs - antiseptic agents

A

Nalidixic acid

Nitrofurantoin

36
Q

What is nalidixic acid only active against

A

gram negative aerobes coliform organisms

37
Q

What is the difference of Nitrofurantoin compared to Nalidixic acid

A

Nitrofurantoin effective agains more gram negative organisms (excepts pseudomonas) but is also effective against some gram positive organisms

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