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Flashcards in Biochem Terms Deck (54):
1

function of an Acid

used in the digestive system to break down food

2

example of an Acid

hydrochloric acid in gastric juice

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What are the 5 molecules of life?

carbohydrates, lipids,proteins,nucleic acids, and adenosine triphosphate

4

how many different lipids are there and what are they?

fatty acids
triglycerides (fats and oils)
phospholipids
steroids
(and some vitamins)

5

Function of carbohydrates?*

quick and short term energy storage
supple multiple materials to build cell structure

6

Function of lipids?*

supply off energy and make up the outer layer of your cells

7

Function of fatty acids (lipids)

help generate ATP (energy)
help make phospholipids and triglycerides

8

Function of triglycerides (lipids)

chemical energy for the body

9

Function of phospholipids (lipids)

forms cell membrane

10

Function of steroids (lipids)

maintain metabolism & homeostatsis

11

Function of proteins? *

Structural: skin, connective tissue
Transport: transport O2 (hemoglobin)
Regulatory: hormones
Immunological: antibodies
Contractile: muscle cell contraction
Catalytic: enzymes

12

Function of Nucleic Acids? *

control cell activities

13

Function of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)? *

Energy transferring molecule (power all cell activities)

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example of ATP

muscle contraction

15

function of amino acids

make up muscle and tissue (building block protein), give cells structure and heal wounds

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example of amino acid

glutamine, leucine (in the blood)

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function of a base?

neutralizes acids

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example of a base

blood is slightly basic (pH 7.35-7.45)

19

function of buffers

maintain pH level in the body by regulating acid-base balance

20

example of buffers

blood is used as one to maintain a balanced pH level

21

function of catalyst

speeds up chemical reactions, like digesting food

22

example of catalyst

enzymes in the intestine

23

function of diffusion

transport substances, the substance moves from high to low concentration through the plasma membrane

24

example of diffusion

digested particles of food diffuse in the colon

25

function of endergonic (endothermic) reaction

abosrbs & stores energy until needed

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example of endergonic (endothermic) reaction

Glycolysis, (absorbs energy -> respiration)

27

function of endocytosis

vesicle detaches from plasma and moves into cytoplasm to fuse with lysosome and its contents are digested
(particles are taken up by enclosure in a plasma membrane sac)

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example of endocytosis

monocytes engulf bacteria

29

function of enzyme

specific molecule that speeds up chemical reactions in cells

30

example of enzyme

lipase, breaks down lipids

31

function of exergonic (exothermic) reaction

releases energy so it can be used

32

example of exergonic (exothermic) reaction

cellular respiration, reaction releases energy that cells use for activities

33

function of exocytosis

Type of ATP-activated transport, Moves secretions and other substances out of the cell
-product to be released is packaged into the cesicle by the Golgi and the vesicle spills the sac contents OUT OF THE CELL

34

example of exocytosis

pancreatic cells secrete enzymes

35

function of facilitated diffusion

diffusion that requires a protein channel/carrier to transport substances through the cell membrane

36

example of facilitated diffusion (type of diffusion)

glucose molecules go through this to move in and out of cells

37

function of filtration

driven by blood pressure, causes H2O and small molecules to be filtered

38

example of filtration

kidneys use filtration to filter waste

39

function of an inorganic molecule (molecule that DOES NOT contains C)

medium for metabolic reactions, dissolves waste, and maintains body temp

40

example of an inorganic moloecule

Water, NaCl

41

function of ions

dissolve in body fluids - electrolytes, which we cannot live without
(this conducts electricity)

42

example of ions

HCO3- in the blood (gains e-)

43

function of an organic molecule

construction materials, play vital role in cell function and structure

44

example of an organic molecule

proteins, carbs, fats (contain C)

45

function of osmosis

diffusion of water across the plasma membrane to transport and balance, goes through a semi-permeable membrane, not pores

46

example of osmosis

sweat going through skin

47

function of passive transport

moves molecules and other substances across membranes w/o energy

48

example of passive transport

diffusion, (doesn't require energy)

49

Function of pH

its a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration in the body, acidic or basic

50

Example of pH

blood protein levels deep, liver makes more to maintain pH balance

51

function of phagocytosis

INGESTION OF SOLID PARTICLES
act as scavenger cells that police and protect the body by ingesting bacteria and foreign debris (solid particles)
(type of endocytosis)

52

example of phagocytosis

white blood cells protect the body by ingesting bacteria and other debris

53

function of pinocytosis

ENGULFING OF EXTRA-CELLULAR FLUID BY CELLS
routine activity of most cells, cells all in the body "gulp" droplets of extracellular fluid
(type of endocytosis)

54

example of pinocytosis

Cells forming the lining of the small intestine
uptake of extra cellular fluids like hormones