The Brain (Part of CNS) Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy & Physiology > The Brain (Part of CNS) > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Brain (Part of CNS) Deck (76):
1

brain contains
neurons? neuroglia? weight?

100 billion neurons
50 trillion neuroglia
3 lbs

2

4 parts of the brain are...?

cerebrum
diencephalon
brain stem
cerebellum

3

brain functions? (3)

maintain homeostasis through
- sensory input -motor output
make decisions - interpret
integrate & store new information

4

brain structure
growth? folds? grooves vs folds called?

grows more rapidly then skull
-folds to occupy space- convolutions
-outward folds (bumps) called gyri (gyrus)
-shallow grooves called sulci (sulcus)
-deepest grooves called fissures
- longitudinal fissure separates cerebral hemispheres (left & right)

5

cerebrum
description? function?

largest part of brain
provides ability to read, write, speak, analyze, memory

6

cerebrum consists of ?

cerebral cortex- outer portion, gray matter
white matter- inner portion
(opposite of spinal cord)

7

cerebral cortex
size? contains? how is it divided? connected by?

2-4 mm thick
billions of neurons
cerebral hemispheres- right & left halves
connected by corpus callosum

8

corpus callosum

IN CEREBRAL CORTEX
band of white matter containing axons that extend btwn hemispheres
connects 2 hemispheres together

9

lobes of cerebrum

frontal
temporal
occipital
parietal
(all different functions)

10

cerebrum is all but what?

all but the cerebellum

11

functional areas of the cerebrum (3)

sensory areas
motor areas
association areas

12

sensory areas
do what? involved in what?

receive sensory info
involved in perception
-conscious awareness of sensation

13

motor areas
do what?

initiate involuntary movements (heart beat, digestion, breathing)

14

association areas do what?

complex integrative function
-memory, emotions, reasoning, judgement, personality traits, intelligence
(remember like associating word w/ meaning)

15

sensory areas
location?
contains what areas (5)

posterior half of cerebral hemispheres
-primary somatosensory area
-primary visual area
-primary auditory area
-primary gustatory area
-primary olfactory area

16

primary somatosensory area

allows you to know the exact points on the body where sensations originate
-pressure, temp., pain, joint & muscle position
(like scratching yourself, you know its on your dorsum)

17

primary visual area
function?

visual information/ visual perception

18

primary auditory area
function?

sound information/auditory perception

19

primary gustatory area
function?

taste information/ taste perception & discrimination

20

primary olfactory area
function?

smell information/ perception & discrimination of odors

21

Motor areas
location?
contains what areas (2)?

anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere
-primary motor area
-broca's area

22

primary motor area
function?

each region controls voluntary contractions of specific muscles or groups of muscles

23

broca's area
function? controls what?

-planning & production of speech
-controls:
-muscles of pharynx, larynx, mouth
-breathing muscles to regulate proper flow of air past vocal cords

24

Association Areas
function? contains what areas (7)?

generates meaningful patterns of recognition & awareness
-Somatosensory Association Areas
-Visual Association Area
-Auditory Assocation Area
-Wernicke's Area
-Prefrontal Cortex
-Premotor Area
-Frontal Eye Field Area

25

Somatosensory Association Area
functions? (4)

-integrates & interprets sensations
-determines shape & texture of objects by touch
-orientation of 1 object w/ respect to another
-storage of memories of past somatosensory experiences to compare new w/ old sensations

26

Visual Association Area
location? function?

-occipital lobe
-relates present & past visual experiences

27

Auditory Association Area
location? function?

-temporal lobe
-recognize a particular sound as speech, music, or noise

28

Wernike's Area
function? location?

-temporal & parietal lobes
-interprets meaning of speech by recognizing spoken words

29

Prefrontal Cortex
location? function?

-anterior frontal lobe
-makeup of personality, intellect, complex learning activities, recall, judgement, reasoning, intuition, mood

30

Premotor Area
location?
functions?

-frontal lobe
-controls learned skilled motor activities (dancing, painting, catching, etc.)
-memory bank to store specific patterns of movement (like remembering how to catch)

31

Frontal Eye Field Area
location? function?

-Frontal cortex
-controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes

32

in the brain, where is your sensory and motor mostly located?

sensory- most of the back
motor- most of the front

33

temporal lobe

receives auditory information

34

occipital lobe

receives visual information

35

parietal lobe

receives & associates somatosensory information

36

frontal lobe

sends motor output

37

what areas does the temporal lobe include?

auditory association area
wernicke's area

38

what areas does the frontal lobe include?

primary motor area
premotor area
broca's area
frontal eye field area
prefrontal lobe

39

what areas does the parietal lobe include?

primary sensory area
primary gustatory area
somatosensory association area
common integrative area

40

steps of CSF circulation

1) CSF is produced by the choroid plexus of each ventricle
2) Ependymal cells secrete CSF into ventricles. CSF flows through ventricles & into subarachnoid space via median & lateral apertures. Some CSF flows through central canal of spinal cord.
3) CSF circulates through & araound brain & spinal cord in subarachnoid space.
4) Some CSF is reabsorbed (into blood) in dural venous sinuses via arachnoid villi

41

Outermost covering of brain, composed of tough fibrous connective tissue

dura mater

42

innermost covering of brain; delicate & vascular

pia mater

43

structures that return CSF to venous blood in dural sinuses

arachnoid villi

44

middle meningeal layer; cobweb in structure

arachnoid mater

45

outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull

dura mater

46

function of olfactory nerve

smell

47

function of optic nerve

vision

48

function of oculomotor

movement of upper eyelid & eyeball
alters lens shape (squinting)

49

function of trochlear

movement of eyeball (cross-eyed)

50

function of trigeminal

touch, pain, temp sensations (face & jaw muscles, like nose getting cold)
muscles in chewing

51

function of abducens

movement of eyeball (look side to side)

52

function of facial nerve

taste, touch, pain, & temp
(taste buds & muscles in face & scalp) (face expressions)

53

function of vestibulocochlear

equilibrium hearing

54

function of glossopharyngeal

taste touch pain temp monitor BP CO2 & O2 in blood for breathing
swallowing speech saliva

55

function of vagus

taste touch pain temp visercal organs in thorax and abdomen
swallowing digestion slowing of heart coughing

56

function of accessory

movement of head & shoulders (shrug)

57

function of hypoglossal

movement of tongue during speech & swallowing (glossy when you say hi)

58

cranial nerve?
shrugging of shoulders

accessory

59

smelling a flower
cranial nerve?

olfactory

60

raising eyelids and focusing the lens of the eye for accommodation; constriction of eye pupils
cranial nerve?

oculomotor

61

involved in smiling
cranial nerve?

facial

62

involved in chewing gum

trigeminal

63

listening to music ; sea sickness

vestibulocochlear

64

secretion of saliva ; tasting well-seasoned food

glossopharyngeal

65

involved in rolling the eyes (3)

oculomotor
trochlear
abducens

66

feeling a toothache

trigeminal

67

reading the study guide

optic

68

major subdivisions of the brain are the _____ and the ____

brain stem
cerebellum

69

cavities found in the brain are called?

ventricles

70

ventricles contain what?

CSF

71

gray matter is composed of what in the brain?
white matter?

gray- unmyelinated neurons
white-myelinated (& unmyelinated) neurons

72

convolutions in cerebrum are important because they increase....

surface area

73

what does the arachnoid villus do?

it reabsorbs CSF into blood

74

define dura mater

touch connective tissue covering immediately beneath the skull

75

define arachnoid mater

thin fragile web-like tissue through which CSF flows

76

define pia mater

extremely thin, inner layer attached to neurons of the brain