Flashcards in The Brain (Part of CNS) Deck (76):
neurons? neuroglia? weight?
100 billion neurons
50 trillion neuroglia
4 parts of the brain are...?
brain functions? (3)
maintain homeostasis through
- sensory input -motor output
make decisions - interpret
integrate & store new information
growth? folds? grooves vs folds called?
grows more rapidly then skull
-folds to occupy space- convolutions
-outward folds (bumps) called gyri (gyrus)
-shallow grooves called sulci (sulcus)
-deepest grooves called fissures
- longitudinal fissure separates cerebral hemispheres (left & right)
largest part of brain
provides ability to read, write, speak, analyze, memory
cerebrum consists of ?
cerebral cortex- outer portion, gray matter
white matter- inner portion
(opposite of spinal cord)
size? contains? how is it divided? connected by?
2-4 mm thick
billions of neurons
cerebral hemispheres- right & left halves
connected by corpus callosum
IN CEREBRAL CORTEX
band of white matter containing axons that extend btwn hemispheres
connects 2 hemispheres together
lobes of cerebrum
(all different functions)
cerebrum is all but what?
all but the cerebellum
functional areas of the cerebrum (3)
do what? involved in what?
receive sensory info
involved in perception
-conscious awareness of sensation
initiate involuntary movements (heart beat, digestion, breathing)
association areas do what?
complex integrative function
-memory, emotions, reasoning, judgement, personality traits, intelligence
(remember like associating word w/ meaning)
contains what areas (5)
posterior half of cerebral hemispheres
-primary somatosensory area
-primary visual area
-primary auditory area
-primary gustatory area
-primary olfactory area
primary somatosensory area
allows you to know the exact points on the body where sensations originate
-pressure, temp., pain, joint & muscle position
(like scratching yourself, you know its on your dorsum)
primary visual area
visual information/ visual perception
primary auditory area
sound information/auditory perception
primary gustatory area
taste information/ taste perception & discrimination
primary olfactory area
smell information/ perception & discrimination of odors
contains what areas (2)?
anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere
-primary motor area
primary motor area
each region controls voluntary contractions of specific muscles or groups of muscles
function? controls what?
-planning & production of speech
-muscles of pharynx, larynx, mouth
-breathing muscles to regulate proper flow of air past vocal cords
function? contains what areas (7)?
generates meaningful patterns of recognition & awareness
-Somatosensory Association Areas
-Visual Association Area
-Auditory Assocation Area
-Frontal Eye Field Area
Somatosensory Association Area
-integrates & interprets sensations
-determines shape & texture of objects by touch
-orientation of 1 object w/ respect to another
-storage of memories of past somatosensory experiences to compare new w/ old sensations
Visual Association Area
-relates present & past visual experiences
Auditory Association Area
-recognize a particular sound as speech, music, or noise
-temporal & parietal lobes
-interprets meaning of speech by recognizing spoken words
-anterior frontal lobe
-makeup of personality, intellect, complex learning activities, recall, judgement, reasoning, intuition, mood
-controls learned skilled motor activities (dancing, painting, catching, etc.)
-memory bank to store specific patterns of movement (like remembering how to catch)
Frontal Eye Field Area
-controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes
in the brain, where is your sensory and motor mostly located?
sensory- most of the back
motor- most of the front
receives auditory information
receives visual information
receives & associates somatosensory information
sends motor output
what areas does the temporal lobe include?
auditory association area
what areas does the frontal lobe include?
primary motor area
frontal eye field area
what areas does the parietal lobe include?
primary sensory area
primary gustatory area
somatosensory association area
common integrative area
steps of CSF circulation
1) CSF is produced by the choroid plexus of each ventricle
2) Ependymal cells secrete CSF into ventricles. CSF flows through ventricles & into subarachnoid space via median & lateral apertures. Some CSF flows through central canal of spinal cord.
3) CSF circulates through & araound brain & spinal cord in subarachnoid space.
4) Some CSF is reabsorbed (into blood) in dural venous sinuses via arachnoid villi
Outermost covering of brain, composed of tough fibrous connective tissue
innermost covering of brain; delicate & vascular
structures that return CSF to venous blood in dural sinuses
middle meningeal layer; cobweb in structure
outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull
function of olfactory nerve
function of optic nerve
function of oculomotor
movement of upper eyelid & eyeball
alters lens shape (squinting)
function of trochlear
movement of eyeball (cross-eyed)
function of trigeminal
touch, pain, temp sensations (face & jaw muscles, like nose getting cold)
muscles in chewing
function of abducens
movement of eyeball (look side to side)
function of facial nerve
taste, touch, pain, & temp
(taste buds & muscles in face & scalp) (face expressions)
function of vestibulocochlear
function of glossopharyngeal
taste touch pain temp monitor BP CO2 & O2 in blood for breathing
swallowing speech saliva
function of vagus
taste touch pain temp visercal organs in thorax and abdomen
swallowing digestion slowing of heart coughing
function of accessory
movement of head & shoulders (shrug)
function of hypoglossal
movement of tongue during speech & swallowing (glossy when you say hi)
shrugging of shoulders
smelling a flower
raising eyelids and focusing the lens of the eye for accommodation; constriction of eye pupils
involved in smiling
involved in chewing gum
listening to music ; sea sickness
secretion of saliva ; tasting well-seasoned food
involved in rolling the eyes (3)
feeling a toothache
reading the study guide
major subdivisions of the brain are the _____ and the ____
cavities found in the brain are called?
ventricles contain what?
gray matter is composed of what in the brain?
gray- unmyelinated neurons
white-myelinated (& unmyelinated) neurons
convolutions in cerebrum are important because they increase....
what does the arachnoid villus do?
it reabsorbs CSF into blood
define dura mater
touch connective tissue covering immediately beneath the skull
define arachnoid mater
thin fragile web-like tissue through which CSF flows