Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (88):
1

general characteristics of the digestive system
extends? what is involved? aka? how are muscles involved?

extends about 5-7 meters from mouth to anus
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
-aka alimentary canal
muscles are in sustained contraction along tract

2

Digestive System Basic Processes (6)

1) Ingestion
2) Secretion (enzymes break down food)
3) Mixing & Propulsion (why stomach gurgles (peristalsis))
4) Digestion (takes place mainly in small intestine)
5) Absorption (also in small intestine, why it's so long)
6) Defecation (pooping)

3

Peritoneum
def? parts? (4)

largest serous membrane in body in abdominal cavity
-mesentary
-parietal peritoneum
-visceral peritoneum
-peritoneal cavity

4

Mesentary
def?

binds small intestine to abdominal wall

5

Parietal Peritoneum
def?

lines wall of abdominopelvic cavity

6

Visceral Peritoneum
def?

covers some organs in digestive system

7

Peritoneal Cavity
location? filled w/?

btwn 2 layers
filled w/ serous fluid

8

Accessory Organs of the Digestive System
what are they? all connected by...?

Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder
Salivary Glands
ALL connected by ducts

9

Pancreas
also what? produces how much per day? duct involved? function?

also an endocrine gland
produces 1200-1500 mL/day
pancreatic duct connects w/ small intestine
FUNCTION: secretes pancreatic juice

10

what are all the enzymes/pancreatic juices the pancreas produces? what do they help with? (7)

pancreatic amylase- carbohydrate digestion
pancreatic lipase- fat digestion
trypsin- protein digestion
nuclease- break down nucleic acids
also: water, sodium, bicarbonate (neutralize intestine, base)

11

Liver
known as? description? functions in general? (5)

largest internal organ
divided into left & right lobes
functions:
1.maintains
2.storage
3.blood filteration
4.detoxification
5.produces bile

12

Liver Function
Maintains what?

1) Maintains carbohydrate, lipid, & protein metabolisms

13

Liver Function
storage of what?

2) Storage- glycogen, iron, & vitamin A, D, K, & B12

14

Liver Function
blood filteration of what?

3) Blood filteration- phagocytizes RBC, WBC, some bacteria

15

Liver Function
Detoxification of what?

4) Detoxification of blood (alcohol & drugs)

16

Liver Function
produces what?

5) Produces Bile (bile salts)

17

Bile
description? how much produced per day? includes (4)? function?

Yellowish-green liquid secreted by hepatic cells (liver)
800-1000mL/day produced
Includes:
-bile salts
-cholesterol
-electrolytes (ions)
-water
aid in fat digestion (breaks fat into smaller globules)

18

Gallbladder
function? duct involved?

Function: -stores bile
-releases bile into small intestine through common bile duct

19

which organ stores bile and which makes it?

gallbladder stores bile
liver makes bile

20

Small Intestine
description? contains? purpose of these?

18-20 ft. long, 1 in. diameter
contains circular folds- increase surface area for absorption

21

Small Intestine
Functions? (4)

1) Receives secretions from pancreas & liver (like enzymes & bile)
2) Completes digestion of nutrients in chyme (using enzymes & bile)
3) Absorption of nutrients & water from digestion
4) Transports remaining residue to large intestine

22

Small Intestine Regions (3)

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

23

Small Intestine Region- DUODENUM
description/length?

10 in. long, (shortest & fixed portion) (doesn't move!)

24

Small Intestine Region-JEJUNUM
description/length? known to be?

Larger & thicker region
3 ft. long
More active in absorption than ileum
(really folded)

25

Small Intestine Region-ILEUM
location? length? contains (2)?

Before large intestine
6 ft. long
Contains more lymph vessels, nerves, & blood vessels (absorption as well)
Ileocecal sphincter- joins small & large intestine

26

Small Intestine Structures (2)

Intestinal Villi
Intestinal Glands

27

Small Intestine Structure - INTESTINAL VILLI
description? what other structure is involved? function of them?

fingerlike projections of mucosa
covered w/ MICROVILLI
-absorptive cells w/ enzymes in them
Function: increase surface area of intestine for absorption
-contains blood & lymph vessels

28

Small Intestine Structure - INTESTINAL VILLI
function? contains?

Function: increase surface area of intestine for absorption
-contains blood & lymph vessels

29

Small Intestine Structure - INTESTINAL GLANDS
location? function? how often does it occur? helps what?

btwn bases of villi
Function: secrete large volume of intestinal juice (water & mucous)
-secretes 1-2 L/day
-helps villi absorb digestive products

30

intestinal juice is made up of what? (2)

water & mucous
(constipated w/o water)

31

Intestinal Enzymes
secreted by what?

secreted by epithelial cells in villi

32

Intestinal Enzymes - PEPTIDASE
what does it do?

breaks peptides into amino acids

33

Intestinal Enzymes - Sucrase, Maltase, Lactase
what does it do?

breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides
(break down sugar enzymes, lactase- milk sugar)

34

Intestinal Enzymes - Intestinal Lipase
what does it do?

splits fats into fatty acids & glycerol

35

Large Intestine
length/description? contains what?

5 ft. long, 2.5 cm. in diameter - no villi
Haustra

36

Large Intestine
Functions? (4)

1) Haustral churning & peristalsis to move contents into rectum
2) Absorbs some water, electrolytes, & vitamins
3) Forms & stores feces
4) Defecating- emptying rectum

37

Large Intestine- HAUSTRA
def?

pouches of colon caused by contraction of colon muscles

38

Parts of Large Intestine
what are they (5)?

1) Cecum
2) Colon
3) Rectum
4) Anal Canal
5) Anus

39

Parts of Large Intestine - CECUM
location? description? what's attached @ the end of it?

beginning of large intestine
pouch-like
appendix attached @ end

40

Parts of Large Intestine - COLON
4 parts & location? (another name for the colon is..?)

ascending- right side
transverse- longest, most moveable
descending- left side
sigmoid- S shaped curve @ end
(another name for large intestine)

41

Parts of Large Intestine - Anal Canal
length?

8 in. long

42

Parts of Large Intestine - Anus
def? aided by?

opening to outside of body
-aided by: Internal & External anal sphincters

43

what color is the gallbladder?

green

44

key word for the digestive system?

peri

45

Final Digestion
what is it? what is produces and what is fermented? what's released?

Activity of bacteria called intestinal flora
-produces some B & K vitamins
-ferment remaining carbs
-release hydrogen, carbon dioxide, & methane gases

46

Feces
def? contains (6)?

product of chyme after 3-10 hrs in colon after water absorption
contains:
-undigested food, water, electrolytes, mucus, shed intestinal cells, bacteria

47

Mouth is aka?

Oral Cavity

48

Mouth (Oral Cavity)
Functions (2)? what is involved in each? purpose of them?

Function: 1. Mainly mechanical digestion (starts mechanical)
-tongue & teeth reduce food to soft, flexible mass- BOLUS
2. Begins chemical digestion
-salivary amylase in saliva
-breaks down carbs (starch) into disaccharides

49

Salivary Glands

Function:
Secrete saliva (99.5% water, 0.5% solutes)
-secretion increases w/ food

50

Salivary Glands
what are the 3 sets/pairs?

Parotid glands
Submandibular glands
Sublingual glands

51

Salivary Glands- PAROTID GLANDS
location? description?

largest, anterior to ears
watery fluid w/ amylase

52

Salivary Glands- SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS
location? description?

floor of mouth
thicker fluid w/ mucous

53

Salivary Glands- SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
location? description?

smallest, beneath tongue
thickest fluid

54

Pharynx
function? connects what? contains?

Function: passageway for food (& air)
connects nasal & oral cavities w/ larynx and esophagus
contains sense receptors for swallowing

55

Esophagus
length? functions (2)? contains?

about 25 cm. long
Function: -move food -moisten & lubricate food (mucous)
contains esophageal sphincter (aka cardiac sphincter)

56

Esophagus- esophageal sphincter (aka cardiac sphincter)
btwn what? muscle fibers description? what does the sphincter prevent?

btwn esophagus and stomach
group of circular muscle fibers that remain contracted
prevents regurgitation into esophagus

57

Deglutition (Swallowing)
bolus movement/location? what happens? (2 different locations of bolus description)

Bolus moves from mouth to pharynx
-triggers sense receptors in medulla oblongata and pons to swallow
Bolus moves from pharynx to esophagus
-peristalsis occurs

58

Peristalsis
what is it? describe (2)

coordinated contractions of muscularis layer of GI tract
moves food through GI tract
(wave-like motion of muscle contraction, all along GI tract, arhythmic contractions, constant)

59

Stomach
shape? capacity/length? size when empty? inner lining thick folds are called what? can they be seen?

J-shaped
1 L capacity, 20-30 cm. long
Empty- size of large sausage
Inner lining thick folds called rugae
-disappear in full stomach

60

Stomach
Functions (4)

moves food w/ gastric juice (mix w/ food to break down)
initiates digestion of proteins
carries on limited absorption
bolus converted to chyme (paste bc mixed w/ gastric juice)
-liquid

61

Parts of the stomach (4 regions)

Cardia region
Fundus region
Body region
Pyloric region

62

Parts of the stomach- Cardia Region
location?

closest to esophagus

63

Parts of the stomach- Fundus Region
description (2)?

temporary storage area
sometimes fills w/ swallowed air

64

Parts of the stomach- Body Region
location?

Central portion

65

Parts of the stomach- Pyloric Region
location? becomes what? contains? functions of what is contains (2)?

Narrow portion at bottom
Becomes the pyloric canal close to small intestine
Pyloric sphincter
-btwn stomach and small intestine
-controls gastric emptying

66

Gastric juice

Contains: -pepsin (enzyme), mucous, HCL
-produce 2000-3000 mL per day

67

Function of Gastric Juice

break down proteins

68

Gastric Juice- Gastric Glands
what kind of cells does it contain? what are the 3 types?

contains 3 types of secretory cells
-mucous cell
-chief cells
-parietal cells

69

Gastric Glands- Mucous cell
secretes? why?

secrete mucous, protect stomach lining

70

Gastric Glands- Chief cells
secretes? why?

secretes pepsinogen that forms into enzyme pepsin- break down proteins

71

Gastric Glands- Parietal cells
secretes? why?

secretes HCl solution & intrinsic factor (aids in vitamin B12 absorption) (helps body absorb things)

72

sphincters in stomach... what is at beginning and what's at the end?

beginning- cardiac
end- pyloric

73

general stomach characteristics
rate of emptying depends on what?

rate of emptying depends on type of food and fluidity of chyme

74

general stomach characteristics
what passes through quickly? longest? what happens when you're more hungry?

liquids, proteins, and carbs pass through quickly (bc already being broken down by enzymes)
fatty foods- 3-6 hrs (take longest)
more hungry- more gastric juice secreted

75

how many layers does the GI tract have? what are they?

4 layers of the GI tract:
serosa
muscularis
submucosa
mucosa

76

Submucosa
type of tissue & purpose of it? contains and what do they do? what controls it? what else plays a role?

connective tissue that binds mucosa to muscularis
-contains: glands
-Neuronal networks from ENS and ANS control secretions into GI tract
-Blood & lymphatic vessels absorb food molecules
-Glands in submucosa secrete substances into GI tract

77

Muscularis
aka/what does it produce? def? type of muscle & purpose of it? contains different muscle like? controlled by?

(peristalsis) (muscularis produces movement)
thick layer of muscle (mostly smooth, but part skeletal in esophagus and anal sphincter muscles) that break down food, mix it, and move it through GI tract (smooth-intestines & stomach, skeletal- upper GI mouth, pharynx, upper eso.)
-inner sheet of circular muscle
-outer layer of longitudinal muscle
-ENS neurons control frequency and strength of muscle contractions

78

Mucosa
def? contains (2)? layers (4)?

Inner lining of digestive tract (SECRETES MUCOUS)
-contains: digestive enzyme secreting glands & mucous
-Epithelium -absorbs substances
-Lamina propria -is connective tissue
-Muscularis mucosae -thin layer of smooth muscle that creates folds in mucosa, which increases absorptive surface area.
-Lymphatic nodules -protect against pathogens

79

Serosa
aka? consists of (2)? function/purpose?

(Peritoneum)
outermost layer, which consists of:
connective tissue & epithelium
serosa secretes a watery fluid (serous) that lubricates GI tract, allowing it to slide against other organs

80

(In the stomach) Surface Mucous Cell
what does it secrete?

secretes mucus

81

(In the stomach) Mucous Neck Cell
what does it secrete?

secretes mucus

82

(In the stomach) Parietal Cell
what does it secrete?

secretes hydrochloric acid & intrinsic factor

83

(In the stomach) Chief Cell
what does it secrete?

secretes pepsinogen and gastric lipase

84

(In the stomach) Enteroendocrine Cell
what does it secrete?

secretes hormone gastrin

85

(In the Small Intestine) Absorptive Cell
function?

absorbs nutrients

86

(In the Small Intestine) Goblet Cell
function?

secretes mucus

87

(In the Small Intestine) Enteroendocrine Cell
function?

secretes hormones secretin or cholecystokinin

88

(In the Small Intestine) Paneth Cell
function?

secretes lysozyme and is capable of phagocytosis