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Flashcards in Tissues continued (test) Deck (123):
1

Cells are organized into ______

tissues

2

4 major types of tissues of the human body

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous

3

epithelial covers _______ organs, forms the ______, lines _____ _____ and ___ _______

covers internal organs, forms the skin, lines body cavities and hollow organs

4

the free surface is call what? what tissue is it in?

epithelial tissue, apical surface

5

what is the underside of epithelial tissue anchored by?

anchored by a basement membrane to connective tissue

6

what does epithelial tissue lack?

blood vessels

7

Why can epithelial injuries heal rapidly?

bc epithelial cells divide rapidly and continuously

8

Epithelial cells are ______ packed together

closely

9

in many places, what attach epithelial cells together?

cell junctions

10

Epithelial cell functions?

secretory surfaces, protective surfaces, and selective barriers (which limit transfer of substances in & out of the body)

11

how are epithelial tissues classified?

by shape and # of layers

12

squamous cells have what shape?
cuboidal? columnar?

squamous: flattened
cuboidal: cube-like
columnar: elongated (tall)/ rectangular

13

epithelial tissues with single layers of cells are called ?
those with two or more cell layers are called ?

simple
stratified

14

simple squamous epithelium consists of a ______ layer

single

15

substances pass through simple squamous epithelium using what kind of transport?

passive (like diffusion)

16

Examples of places to find simple squamous epithelium

air sacs of lungs, inner lining of ventral body cavities & blood vessels, and certain parts of the kidney

17

Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a _____ layer

single

18

Simple cuboidal epithelium is located?

in kidney tubules, lower respiratory passages, thyroid, salivary & mammary glands

19

simple columnar epithelium is composed of a _____ layer

single

20

cells of simple columnar can be _____ or _____

ciliated or non-ciliated

21

cilia aid in?

moving mucus and moving of particles

22

non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium lines the ______

gallbladder, ducts of many glands, gastrointestinal (digestive) tract

23

cells of pseudostratified columnar epithelium appear to be what, but are not?

multiple layers, but they are not

24

some pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells have what ? what surface is it on?

cilia, apical surface

25

pseudostratified columnar epithelium not only usually contain cilia, but also have what and where?

goblet cells scattered throughout the secrete mucus

26

Where are pseudostratified columnar epithelium located?

nasal cavity, parts of the male urethra, & upper respiratory tract

27

Cells nearest the free surface of stratified squamous epithelium are _____ (shape), while cells in the deepest layer are ______ (shape).

squamous (flattened), cuboidal (cube-like) near the deepest layer

28

Stratified cuboidal epithelium consists of ____ layers of ___________ shaped cells

multiple layers of cuboidal (cube-like)

29

Stratified cuboidal epithelium located?

in the ducts of sweat glands

30

Stratified columnar epithelium consist of _____ layers of ______ shaped cells

mulitple layers of columnar (rectangular) chaped cells

31

Stratified columnar epithelium located:

cornea, parts of male urethra, ducts of certain glands

32

Transitional epithelium is specialized to _____

allow urinary organs to STRETCH

33

transitional epithelium forms the lining of what?

the urinary bladder, ureter, and urethra

34

glandular epithelium is composed of cells that are specialized to...

secrete substances

35

exocrine glands secrete their products into ___

ducts/tubes

36

endocrine glands secrete their products into ______

interstitial fluid and blood

37

example of exocrine gland

sweat gland

38

connective tissue functions:

connect and bind organs, support weight of the body w/ bone & cartilage, protect organs, and transport blood

39

extracellular matrix of connective tissue consists of _____

fibers (and ground substance)

40

what is the most common kind of cell in connective tissues?

Fibroblast

41

macrophages are specialized for ?

phagocytosis

42

what do fibroblasts produce?

fibers

43

mast cells are usually located near what?

blood vessels

44

histamine functions to ..

dialate blood vessels and help inflammation

45

3 types of fibers produced by fibroblasts?

collagen
elastic
reticular

46

collagenous fibers of composed of?

(protein) collagen

47

dense connective tissue contains abundant ________

collagenous fibers

48

elastic fibers are composed of _____

proteins like elastin

49

examples of places to find elastic fibers

in large blood vessels, skin, certain ligaments

50

Reticular fibers are ____ and form ______

collagen (and web-like) and forma internal structure of many organs

51

where is loose connective tissue located?

EVERYWHERE IN THE BODY
-deep to epidermis, walls of hollow organs, membranes lining body cavities

52

most cells of loose connective tissue are ______

fibroblasts

53

functions of loose connective tissue :

support, strengthen (provide protection), elasticity , (house blood vessels supplying epithelium)

54

adipocytes

fat cells (found in many different connective tissue)

55

where is adipose tissue located?

under skin, around heart & kidneys

56

adipose tissue functions:

STORES FAT, (provides warmth, insulation, protection, shock absorption, major energy reserve in the body)

57

reticular connective tissue is composed of...

reticular fibers in a gel matrix

58

reticular connective tissue supports

liver, spleen, lymph nodes, immune system (smaller vessels and nerves and internal structure of many organs by forming it)

59

dense connective tissue consists of _____

rows of fibroblasts

60

regular dense connective tissue binds ____

muscles to bones (body parts together)

61

irregular dense connective tissue is located

in the dermis of the skin

62

elastic connective tissue consists of

elastic fibers with fibroblasts

63

elastic connective tissue is located

(certain ligaments & blood vessels) lungs, trachea, arteries

64

cartilage is a _____ connective tissue

ridgid, specialized

65

cartilage provides __________

support, protection, and attachment to other structures

66

cartilage extracellular matrix is composed of

collagen and elastic fibers

67

cartilage cells are called

chondrocytes

68

3 types of cartilage

hyaline
elastic
fibro

69

most common type of cartilage

hyaline cartilage

70

hyaline cartilage is located

nose, ear, trachea (between bones & joints, nose, respiratory tract, btwn sternum and ribs)

71

elastic cartilage located

external ear

72

fibrocartilage located

in invertebral discs and pelvic bone

73

bone is the most _____ connective tissue

dense, ridgid, hardest

74

bone functions to :

protect and store bone marrow

75

bone matrix is deposited by bone cells called

osteocytes

76

blood is composed of

plasma, red blod cells, white blood cells, and platelets

77

plasma is

liquid matrix
liquid ECM in blood which is mostly water, dissolved solutes, and proteins

78

cells types of blood are

red (erythrocytes) and white (leukocytes) blood cells

79

skeletal muscle tissue forms ___

muscles

80

skeletal muscle tissue is under conscious control which means its _____

voluntary

81

skeletal muscle tissue function:

move bones
(produce body movement)

82

smooth muscle tissue is called smooth because?

it lacks striations

83

smooth muscle tissue is located ?

in walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, eyes, skin, ducts of certain glands)

84

why is smooth muscle involuntary

contracts with out conscious
(brain has no conscious control of its contraction)

85

where is cardiac muscle located

only in the heart

86

what is an intercalated disc and what tissue has it ?

its a cell junction
in cardiac muscle tissue

87

like skeletal muscle, cardiac is ____ but unlike skeletal muscle it is _____

striated, branched/involuntary

88

like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle is ____

involuntary

89

which muscle tissues are involuntary?
striated?
uninucleate?

smooth and cardiac, skeletal is voluntary
skeletal & cardiac are striated, smooth is not
smooth & cardiac are uni, skeletal is multinucleate

90

where are nervous tissue found?

brain and nervous system, (brain, spinal cord, and nerves)

91

basic cells of nervous tissue are

neurons

92

in addition to neurons, nervous tissues also includes?

neuroglical cells (support neuron activities)

93

epithelial membranes are composed of

epithelial and underlying connective tissue

94

3 types of epithelial membranes are

serous
cutaneous
mucous

95

serous membranes line _____ and secrete ____ fluid

body cavities not open to the exterior, secrete serous

96

mucous membranes line _______ and secrete ____

body passages that open outside of the body, mucus

97

cutaneous membrane is more commonly called what?

the skin

98

what tissues are cell junctions in ?

most epithelia tissue and some muscle/nerve cells

99

what do cell junctions do?

join cells together between cell membranes

100

cells junctions have _____functions in _____ tissues

different functions in different tissues

101

what are the 5 cell junctions ?

tight junctions
adherens junctions
desmosomes
hemidesmosomes
gap junctions

102

tight junctions function & location

f: fuse cells together tightly to prevent substances passing between cells
l: linings of stomach, intestines, and bladder

103

adherens junctions function & location

f: resist separation of cells when stretched
location: urinary bladder, uterus

104

desmosomes function & location

f: prevent separationg of cells under tension or contraction
l: epidermis, cardiac muscle cells

105

hemidesmosomes function & location

f: attach cells to membranes- not to each other
l: skin cells attached to basement membrane
(cant pull off your arm)

106

gap junctions function & location

f: allows cells to communicate with one another (impulses)
l: nervous system, heart muscle, gastrointestinal tract

107

define tissue repair

process of wound healing
(dead and damaged cells are removed and replaced with new cells of tissues)

108

2 types of repair

regeneration & fibrosis

109

define regneration

dead & damaged cells are replaced with cells of same type
(like a paper cut)

110

what tissues typically undergo regeneration?

epithelial, most connective & smooth
cartilage undergoes fibrosis

111

define fibrosis

fibroblasts fill in gaps left from injury
tissues are not capable of full regeneration
(fibroblasts divide by mitosis, produce collagen which fills in gap & tissues loses some level of functional ability)

112

which tissues generally heal by fibrosis?

cardiac, skeletal muscle and nervous tissue

113

what is the end result of fibrosis?

development of scar tissue composed of dense irregular connective tissue

114

list of factors that affect tissue repair?

nutrition - proteins and vitamin c
blood circulation- transport O2 nutrients
age - faster when younger

115

function of serous membranes?

reduces friction created when organs move within respective membranes

116

membrane type in moveable joints like knee and shoulder

synovial

117

which membrane is the only non-epithelial

synovial, made up of 2 connective tissue layers without a layer of epithelial cells

118

membrane that has perietal and visceral layers

serous

119

membrane adapted for absorption and secretion

mucous membrane

120

which are the wet membranes

mucuous, serous, and synovial
cutaneous is the dry membrane

121

only membrane with goblet cells?

mucous

122

which epithelial cell can secrete mucus?

Columnar epithelium because of the goblet cells!

123

epithelium of this membrane is always simple squamous

serous