Flashcards in Tissues continued (test) Deck (123):
Cells are organized into ______
4 major types of tissues of the human body
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
epithelial covers _______ organs, forms the ______, lines _____ _____ and ___ _______
covers internal organs, forms the skin, lines body cavities and hollow organs
the free surface is call what? what tissue is it in?
epithelial tissue, apical surface
what is the underside of epithelial tissue anchored by?
anchored by a basement membrane to connective tissue
what does epithelial tissue lack?
Why can epithelial injuries heal rapidly?
bc epithelial cells divide rapidly and continuously
Epithelial cells are ______ packed together
in many places, what attach epithelial cells together?
Epithelial cell functions?
secretory surfaces, protective surfaces, and selective barriers (which limit transfer of substances in & out of the body)
how are epithelial tissues classified?
by shape and # of layers
squamous cells have what shape?
columnar: elongated (tall)/ rectangular
epithelial tissues with single layers of cells are called ?
those with two or more cell layers are called ?
simple squamous epithelium consists of a ______ layer
substances pass through simple squamous epithelium using what kind of transport?
passive (like diffusion)
Examples of places to find simple squamous epithelium
air sacs of lungs, inner lining of ventral body cavities & blood vessels, and certain parts of the kidney
Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a _____ layer
Simple cuboidal epithelium is located?
in kidney tubules, lower respiratory passages, thyroid, salivary & mammary glands
simple columnar epithelium is composed of a _____ layer
cells of simple columnar can be _____ or _____
ciliated or non-ciliated
cilia aid in?
moving mucus and moving of particles
non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium lines the ______
gallbladder, ducts of many glands, gastrointestinal (digestive) tract
cells of pseudostratified columnar epithelium appear to be what, but are not?
multiple layers, but they are not
some pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells have what ? what surface is it on?
cilia, apical surface
pseudostratified columnar epithelium not only usually contain cilia, but also have what and where?
goblet cells scattered throughout the secrete mucus
Where are pseudostratified columnar epithelium located?
nasal cavity, parts of the male urethra, & upper respiratory tract
Cells nearest the free surface of stratified squamous epithelium are _____ (shape), while cells in the deepest layer are ______ (shape).
squamous (flattened), cuboidal (cube-like) near the deepest layer
Stratified cuboidal epithelium consists of ____ layers of ___________ shaped cells
multiple layers of cuboidal (cube-like)
Stratified cuboidal epithelium located?
in the ducts of sweat glands
Stratified columnar epithelium consist of _____ layers of ______ shaped cells
mulitple layers of columnar (rectangular) chaped cells
Stratified columnar epithelium located:
cornea, parts of male urethra, ducts of certain glands
Transitional epithelium is specialized to _____
allow urinary organs to STRETCH
transitional epithelium forms the lining of what?
the urinary bladder, ureter, and urethra
glandular epithelium is composed of cells that are specialized to...
exocrine glands secrete their products into ___
endocrine glands secrete their products into ______
interstitial fluid and blood
example of exocrine gland
connective tissue functions:
connect and bind organs, support weight of the body w/ bone & cartilage, protect organs, and transport blood
extracellular matrix of connective tissue consists of _____
fibers (and ground substance)
what is the most common kind of cell in connective tissues?
macrophages are specialized for ?
what do fibroblasts produce?
mast cells are usually located near what?
histamine functions to ..
dialate blood vessels and help inflammation
3 types of fibers produced by fibroblasts?
collagenous fibers of composed of?
dense connective tissue contains abundant ________
elastic fibers are composed of _____
proteins like elastin
examples of places to find elastic fibers
in large blood vessels, skin, certain ligaments
Reticular fibers are ____ and form ______
collagen (and web-like) and forma internal structure of many organs
where is loose connective tissue located?
EVERYWHERE IN THE BODY
-deep to epidermis, walls of hollow organs, membranes lining body cavities
most cells of loose connective tissue are ______
functions of loose connective tissue :
support, strengthen (provide protection), elasticity , (house blood vessels supplying epithelium)
fat cells (found in many different connective tissue)
where is adipose tissue located?
under skin, around heart & kidneys
adipose tissue functions:
STORES FAT, (provides warmth, insulation, protection, shock absorption, major energy reserve in the body)
reticular connective tissue is composed of...
reticular fibers in a gel matrix
reticular connective tissue supports
liver, spleen, lymph nodes, immune system (smaller vessels and nerves and internal structure of many organs by forming it)
dense connective tissue consists of _____
rows of fibroblasts
regular dense connective tissue binds ____
muscles to bones (body parts together)
irregular dense connective tissue is located
in the dermis of the skin
elastic connective tissue consists of
elastic fibers with fibroblasts
elastic connective tissue is located
(certain ligaments & blood vessels) lungs, trachea, arteries
cartilage is a _____ connective tissue
cartilage provides __________
support, protection, and attachment to other structures
cartilage extracellular matrix is composed of
collagen and elastic fibers
cartilage cells are called
3 types of cartilage
most common type of cartilage
hyaline cartilage is located
nose, ear, trachea (between bones & joints, nose, respiratory tract, btwn sternum and ribs)
elastic cartilage located
in invertebral discs and pelvic bone
bone is the most _____ connective tissue
dense, ridgid, hardest
bone functions to :
protect and store bone marrow
bone matrix is deposited by bone cells called
blood is composed of
plasma, red blod cells, white blood cells, and platelets
liquid ECM in blood which is mostly water, dissolved solutes, and proteins
cells types of blood are
red (erythrocytes) and white (leukocytes) blood cells
skeletal muscle tissue forms ___
skeletal muscle tissue is under conscious control which means its _____
skeletal muscle tissue function:
(produce body movement)
smooth muscle tissue is called smooth because?
it lacks striations
smooth muscle tissue is located ?
in walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, eyes, skin, ducts of certain glands)
why is smooth muscle involuntary
contracts with out conscious
(brain has no conscious control of its contraction)
where is cardiac muscle located
only in the heart
what is an intercalated disc and what tissue has it ?
its a cell junction
in cardiac muscle tissue
like skeletal muscle, cardiac is ____ but unlike skeletal muscle it is _____
like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle is ____
which muscle tissues are involuntary?
smooth and cardiac, skeletal is voluntary
skeletal & cardiac are striated, smooth is not
smooth & cardiac are uni, skeletal is multinucleate
where are nervous tissue found?
brain and nervous system, (brain, spinal cord, and nerves)
basic cells of nervous tissue are
in addition to neurons, nervous tissues also includes?
neuroglical cells (support neuron activities)
epithelial membranes are composed of
epithelial and underlying connective tissue
3 types of epithelial membranes are
serous membranes line _____ and secrete ____ fluid
body cavities not open to the exterior, secrete serous
mucous membranes line _______ and secrete ____
body passages that open outside of the body, mucus
cutaneous membrane is more commonly called what?
what tissues are cell junctions in ?
most epithelia tissue and some muscle/nerve cells
what do cell junctions do?
join cells together between cell membranes
cells junctions have _____functions in _____ tissues
different functions in different tissues
what are the 5 cell junctions ?
tight junctions function & location
f: fuse cells together tightly to prevent substances passing between cells
l: linings of stomach, intestines, and bladder
adherens junctions function & location
f: resist separation of cells when stretched
location: urinary bladder, uterus
desmosomes function & location
f: prevent separationg of cells under tension or contraction
l: epidermis, cardiac muscle cells
hemidesmosomes function & location
f: attach cells to membranes- not to each other
l: skin cells attached to basement membrane
(cant pull off your arm)
gap junctions function & location
f: allows cells to communicate with one another (impulses)
l: nervous system, heart muscle, gastrointestinal tract
define tissue repair
process of wound healing
(dead and damaged cells are removed and replaced with new cells of tissues)
2 types of repair
regeneration & fibrosis
dead & damaged cells are replaced with cells of same type
(like a paper cut)
what tissues typically undergo regeneration?
epithelial, most connective & smooth
cartilage undergoes fibrosis
fibroblasts fill in gaps left from injury
tissues are not capable of full regeneration
(fibroblasts divide by mitosis, produce collagen which fills in gap & tissues loses some level of functional ability)
which tissues generally heal by fibrosis?
cardiac, skeletal muscle and nervous tissue
what is the end result of fibrosis?
development of scar tissue composed of dense irregular connective tissue
list of factors that affect tissue repair?
nutrition - proteins and vitamin c
blood circulation- transport O2 nutrients
age - faster when younger
function of serous membranes?
reduces friction created when organs move within respective membranes
membrane type in moveable joints like knee and shoulder
which membrane is the only non-epithelial
synovial, made up of 2 connective tissue layers without a layer of epithelial cells
membrane that has perietal and visceral layers
membrane adapted for absorption and secretion
which are the wet membranes
mucuous, serous, and synovial
cutaneous is the dry membrane
only membrane with goblet cells?
which epithelial cell can secrete mucus?
Columnar epithelium because of the goblet cells!