Nervous System material! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System material! Deck (42):
1

nervous system is divided into which 2 nervous systems?

central & peripheral

2

peripheral nervous system aka as ? divided into what 2 big divisions?

autonomic and somatic

3

autonomic division is further divided into what 2 divisions?

parasympathetic & sympathetic

4

Major function of the neuron?

excitability (respond to stimuli)

5

nerve tissue consists of what 2 cells?

neurons and neuroglia

6

function of dendrites

input area; receives signals from other neurons

7

function of soma (cell body)

input area; main nutritional and metabolic area

8

function of axon

conductive region; generates action potential along its length

9

4 types of neuroglia in CNS and function of each

astrocytes- attach to blood capillaries & neurons to create blood-brain barrier, restricts movement of substances btwn blood & neurons of CNS, provide nutrients to neurons, regulate ion concentration, remove excess neurotransmitters
oligodendrocytes- produce & maintain myelin
microglia- acts as phagocytes (remove damaged nerve tissue & invading microbes)
ependymal cells- line brain ventricles & central canal of spinal cord to protect & nourish CNS, produce & asist in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

10

what support cell forms the myelin sheath?

Schwann cells

11

myelin is found around which part of the neuron ?

axon

12

what substance is found in synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal

ACh acetylcholine

13

neurons have only one or many axons?

only one

14

axons are never or frequently branched?

frequently

15

dendrites have only one or many branches?

many

16

region of the cell body from which the axon originates from the cell body?

axon hillock

17

secretes neurotransmitters; at ends of axon

axon terminal

18

receptive region of a neuron

dendrite

19

insulates the nerve fibers

myelin sheath

20

site of the nucleus and most important metabolic processes

cell body (soma)

21

impulse transmitter

axon

22

3 types of functional neurons and their function

sensory (afferent) neurons - transmit impulses to CNS
motor (efferent) neurons - carry info from CNS to effectors
interneurons - contact w/ nearby neurons

23

bipolar vs unipolar vs multipolar

unipolar- cell body is not in direct line of axon & dendrite (pulled off to the left side of axon)
bipolar- cell body located in the middle of axon
multipolar- several dendrites with cell body in the middle of them

24

oligondendrocytes are located where?

they are attached to schwann cells bc they produce and maintain myelin, no projections

25

CNS involves what parts of the body? (2)

brain and spinal cord

26

PNS involves what parts of body? (5)

cranial nerves
spinal nerves
ganglia
enteric plexuses in small intestine
sensory receptors in skin

27

what do all neurons consist of ?

cell body, dendrites, and axon

28

how does information flow in neuron structure?

dendrites to cell body to axon to axon terminal to synaptic end bulbs

29

cell body

contains organelles typical of any other cell that maintains normal life functions
aka soma
synthesizes new cell products

30

dendrites

extensions of the cell body that RECEIVE information

31

axon hillock

site where impulses begin
cone shape at end of cell body (like wrist, triangle)

32

axon collateral

branch of an axon

33

axon

long process that conducts information to another cell (neuron effector)
extends from axon hillock
single axon per neuron
axoplasm -cytoplasm of axon
axolemma -cell membrane of axon

34

schwann cell

maintains myelin sheath around a peripheral neuron

35

myelin sheath

layered fatty covering that insulates axon

36

node of ranvier

axon exposed between schwann cells (no myelin)
helps impulse travel faster!

37

axon terminal

ending of axon where it meets another cell

38

synaptic bulb

tip of the axon terminal

39

Polarity of neurons. Which are which?

Multipolar- motor & interneurons
Bipolar & unipolar- sensory

40

Characteristics of bipolar

One dendrite
One axon
Located: retina, inner ear, olfactory, brain areas

41

Characteristics of unipolar

Dendrites & axon fused into 1 process (cell body not direct line of axon and dendrite)
Located: most sensory neurons

42

Characteristics of multipolar

Several dendrites
One axon
Located: brain and spinal cord