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Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tissues Deck (40):
1

Two forms of muscle cells based on arrangement of myfilaments (protein bundles in cytoplasm
what are the 2 forms?

striated muscle cells- myofilaments arranged in alternating light & dark regions (appear striped or striated under microscope
smooth muscle cells- have myofilaments arranged in irregular bundles instead of repeating light and dark regions

2

skeletal

MUSCLE TISSUE
description: striated appearance, cells are long and extend nearly the length of whole muscle; muscle fibers, multinucleate
function: contractions produce body movements, voluntary
location: attached to skeleton

3

cardiac

MUSCLE TISSUE
description: short, branched, striated appearance, intercalated disc (dark line separating individual cardiac muscle cells) , uninucleate
function: contractions, involuntary
location: only in the heart

4

Smooth

MUSCLE TISSUE
description: flattened cells, uninucleate
function: contractions, involuntary
location: walls of nearly every hollow organ, blood vessels, eyes, skin, and ducts of glands

5

Nervous

Under muscle tissue
description: ECM made of ground substance and few protein fibers , 2 main cell types
function: neurons- send & receive messages
neurological cells- support neuron activities
location: majority of brain, spinal cord, and nerves

6

types of connective tissue cells in the connective tissue proper

fibroblasts
phagocytes
adipocytes
mast cells
other immune system cells
(can be resident or migrant cells)

7

connective tissue functions

connecting & binding
support
protection
transport

8

connective tissue divided into 2 basic groups
what do they differ in?

differ in their cell type and extra cellular matrix
-connective tissue proper & - specialized connective tissue

9

Specialized connective tissue?

cartilage, bone tissue, and blood

10

hyaline cartilage

specialized connective tissue
description: tough flexible tissue, chondrocytes, ECM
function: support, protection, resist compression
location: between bones in joints, between sternum and ribs, nose, respiratory tract

11

Fibrocartilage

Specialized connective tissue
description: chondrocytes, collagen fibers, ECM
function: support, protect, resist compression
location: intervertebral discs

12

elastic cartilage

Specialized connective tissue
description: chondrocytes, elastic fibers, ECM
function: involved in producing and detecting sound
location: ears, epiglottis of larynx

13

Bone

Specialized connective tissue
description:osteoclasts, osteoblasts, ECM, osteocytes
function: support, protect, store calcium, provide leverage for movement
location: bones

14

Blood

specialized connnective tissue
description: plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes
function: transport nutrients, gases, wastes, immune cells
location: within blood vessels and chambers of the heart

15

types of connective tissue proper

loose
dense irregular
dense regular collagenous
dense regular elastic
reticular
adipose

16

loose

connective tissue
description: fibroblasts, ground substance, protein fibers (elastic and collagen)
function: support, protect, houses blood vessels supplying epithelium
location: deep to epidermis
walls of hollow organs
membranes lining body cavities

17

adipose

connective tissue (fat cell)
description: adipocytes, protein fibers
function: warmth, insulation, shock absorption, protection, major energy reserve for the body
location: deep to the skin in characteristic areas, surrounds heart and abdominal organs

18

dense irregular

connective tissue
description: fibroblasts, collagen fibers, ground substance
function: strength, resistance to stress in all 3 planes
location: deepest layer of skin, around joints & organs

19

dense regular collagenous

connective tissue
description: fibroblasts, (parallel) collagen fibers, ground substance
function:strength, resistance to stress in 1 plane
location: tendons, ligaments

20

dense regular elastic

connective tissue
description: (parallel) elastic fibers, ground substance
function:allows tissue to stretch and recoil
location: large blood vessels, certain ligaments

21

reticular

connective tissue
description: reticular fibers, leukocytes
function: forms internal structure of many organs, supports smaller vessels and nerves
location: lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, liver
basement membrane
around vessels and nerves

22

most common resident cell

fibroblasts

23

largest resident cell

mast cell

24

immune cells?

phagocytes

25

transitional

epithelium
description:multiple layers of cells, apical cells dome-shaped when relaxed and flattened when stretched
function: protection, gives tissues added distensibility
location: urinary bladder, urethra, ureter

26

stratified squamous

epithelium
description: multiple layers of squamous cells
apical cells dead, flaky, and filled with keratin
cuboidal to squamous shaped basal cells
function: preotection from mechanical stresses and micoorganisms, prevents most water loss through skin
location: epidermis

27

simple squamous

epithelium
description:single layer of flat cells, flattened, central nuclei
function: provides barrier through which gases and fluids can be exchanged
location: air sacs of lungs, inner lining of central body cavities and blood vessels, certain parts of kidney

28

simple cubodial

epithelium
description: single layer of cube-shaped cells, round, central nuclei
function: absorption, secretion of mucus and other substances
location: kidney tubules, lower respiratory passages, thyroid, salivary, and mammary glands

29

simple columnar

epithelium
description:single layer of rectangular cells, ovoid basal nuclei, GOBLET CELLS
function: absorption, secretion of mucus and other substances, propulsion of egg through uterine tube
location: digestive tract from stomach, uterine tube, gallbladder, certain kidney tubules

30

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

epithelium
description: single layer of columnar cells of DIFFERENT HEIGHTS, giving a stratified appearance, contains cilia
function: secretes mucus and propels it with ciliary motion
location: Nasal cavity, parts of male urethra, upper respiratory passages

31

epithelial tissue function?

selective barriers- limit transfer of substances in & out of body
secretory surfaces
protective surfaces

32

Extra cellular matrix consists of ...?
function?

ground substance and protein fibers
function: provides strength to tissue to resist stretching & compressive forces

33

protein fibers in ECM? (3)

reticular, elastic, and collagen

34

classification of epithelial tissue?

according to shape and layers
Ex. Shape- flattened cells (squamous)
-cube-like (cuboidal)
-elongated, tall (columnar
Layers- single layer (simple
-multi layers (stratified)

35

3 types of surfaces for epithelial tissue

apical (free surface)
lateral (faces adjacent surrounding cells)
basal (attached to basement membrane)

36

4 major types of human tissue

epithelial
connective
muscle
nervous

37

epithelial tissue characteristics

continuous sheets, closely packed cells (simple or multiple layers)
little extracellular material between cells
lack blood vessels
have a nerve supply
divide rapidly and continuously
connected to basement membrane

38

definition of tissues

group of similar cells that function together

39

study of tissues

histology

40

person who examines tissue for damage/disease

pathologist