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Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (52):
1

Blood
description? blood cells location? called? examples? other?

fluid connective tissue
cells suspended in light, fibrous matrix
blood cells are FORMED ELEMENTS
-red & white blood cells, platelets
liquid matrix is PLASMA

2

blood characteristics
color? viscosity? pH? temperature? volume?

color: -scarlet (O2 rich)
-dark red (O2 poor) NOT BLUE
viscosity: -5x time that of water
pH: 7.3-7.5 (slightly basic, too low-> acidosis)
Temp: 100F
Volume: - 4-5 liters female
- 5-6 L males

3

functions (3)

transportation
regulation
prevents infections

4

transportation

carries o@, nutrients, wastes (like C02), and hormones

5

regulates

body temp, fluid pH, fluid volumes

6

prevents infections

(white blood cells)

7

blood cell production is called?

hematopoiesis

8

blood cell production (hematopoiesis)
occurs? examples (6)? blood cells come from? called?

occurs in red bone marrow
-ribs, vertebrae, sternum, pelvis, humerus, femur
all blood cells come from homatopoietic stem cells
-hemoblasts (first blood cells-> organs, development of fetus)

9

plasma proteins (6)

albumin
globulins
-alpha & beta globulins
-gamma globulins
clotting proteins- fibrinogen, prothrombin

10

albumin
known for being..? produced? function (2)?

most abundant
produced by liver
maintains plasma osmotic pressure
transports steroids

11

(globulins) Alpha and beta golublins
produced? function?

produced by liver
transport lipids & fat-soluble vitamins

12

(globulins) Gamma globulins
produced? type of?

produced by lymphatic system
type of antibody (antibodies fight infections)

13

Clotting proteins- fibrinogen, prothrombin
produced? function?

produced by liver
aids in blood clotting
(hemophiliacs don't makes these, proteins-> made of amino acids)

14

Red blood cells aka?

erythrocytes

15

red blood cells (erythrocytes)
measure? shape? known for? how much in blood? function? contains? composed of (2)? job of each molecule? example and location?

7.5 mew m in distance
biconcave discs
lack nuclei and organelles
4-6 mill/mewL of blood
FUNCTION: O2 transport, minor CO2 transport
contains: hemoglobin (part of RBC)
-composed of: Protein (globin) & red heme (Fe) pigments
-each molecule carries 4 O2 (8 total)
-oxyhemoglobin (in lungs)

16

name for red blood cell production

erythropoiesis

17

red blood cell production (erythropoiesis)
hormone involved? where released? function? what's required for this hormone to be released? what cells are involved? RBC lifespan?

hormone: erythropoietin (EPO) controls RBC formation rate
-released by kidneys
works on negative feedback system
-low O2 content-> EPO released
vitamin B 12 & iron (Fe) required
hemocytoblasts divide and differentiate
RBC's lifespan- 120 days (get old -> die)

18

red blood cell removal/ recycling
# of RBC maintained by? what happens to old/damaged ones?

# of RBCs is constant & maintained by negative feedback
old/damaged cells engulfed by macrophages (pac men) in spleen, liver, red bone marrow

19

hemoglobin (involved in red blood cell removal/ recycling)

broken down into heme & globin
-globin reduced to amino acids
-Fe removed from heme & transported to liver
-rest of heme converted to pigement- BILIRUBIN
-becomes part of bile (made in liver, stored in
gallbladder, yellow/green)

20

rbc (erythrocytes) known for?

lack of nuclei and organelles (BUT STILL CONSIDERED CELLS)

21

White blood cells aka?

leukocytes

22

White blood cells (leukocytes)
called? how much in blood volume? how much total in blood? function? mostly located? 2 different classes of WBC?

"true cells"
less than 1% of blood volume
FUNCTION: protect against pathogens, toxins, cancer cells
formed in red bone marrow by hemoblasts
5,000-10,000 mewL of blood
most WBCs in lymphatic organs
two class of white blood cells
-Granulocytes: stainable granules (have grains)
-Agranulocytes: no stainable granules

23

Granulocytes
size? lifespan? shape? kinds (3)?

2x size of red blood cells
granular cytoplasm
short life span
kinds:
-neutrophils
-eosinophils
-basophils

24

neutrophils
known for being...? amount in WBCs? granules color? nucleus? function & examples?

most numerous WBC - 50-70% of WBCs
stained light purple granules
3-6 lobed nucleus
FUNCTION: fight bacterial infections (ex: cut, sore throat)

25

eosinophils
amount in WBCs? nucleus? granules color? function?

2-4% of WBC
bi-lobed nucleus
granules redish-orange
FUNCTION: lessen allergic reactions & attack parasitic worms

26

basophils
amount in WBCs? granules color? location? function (2)?

27

Agranulocytes
description? kinds (2)? mainly located where?

no cytoplasmic granules
kinds: (mainly lymphatic system)
-monocytes
-lymphocytes

28

monocytes
amount in WBCs? shape of nucleus? cytoplasm color? become? function?

3-8% of WBCs
LARGEST blood cell
kidney-shaped nucleus, blue cytoplasm
leave bloodstream to become MACROPHAGES
FUNCTION: phagocytosis of foreign particles & debris

29

lymphocytes
amount in WBCs? shape of nucleus? location and how many? lifespan? types (2)?

30% of WBCs
large, round nucleus
trillions in mostly lymphatic tissues (immune system too)
live for many years
types
-T cells
-B cells

30

(lymphocytes) T cells
function?

defend against viruses and tumor cells
manage immune response

31

(lymphocytes) B cells
function?

Produce antibodies

32

white blood cell counts
normal? low? called? high? called? symptoms of high?

normal: 5-10 thousand/mm^3
Low WBC count: below 5,000
-called LEUKOPENIA
High WBC count: above 10,000
-called LEUKOCYTOSIS
-acute infections, vigorous exercise, loss of body fluids

33

blood platelets aka?

thrombocytes

34

blood platelets (thrombocytes)
what are they? name? formed where? how many in blood? function?

fragments of large bone marrow cells - MEGAKARYOCTES (mother of all blood cells, "mega")
formed in red bone marrow
150,000-400,000/ mewL blood
FUNCTION: help form blood clots in torn blood vessels

35

Thrombotic Thromobocytopenic Purpure (TTP)
type of disorder?

clotting

36

Sickle cell anemia
type of disorder?

anemia

37

hereditary spherocytosis
type of disorder?

anemia

38

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS)
type of disorder?

clotting

39

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
type of disorder?

clotting

40

Hemophilia
type of disorder?

non-clotting

41

Von Willebrand Disease
type of disorder?

non-clotting
MOST COMMON

42

Leukemia
type of disorder?

blood cancer

43

Lymphoma
type of disorder?

blood cancer

44

shape of erythrocytes vs leukocytes vs platelets

erythrocytes- biconcave, anucleate disc
leukocytes- spherical, nucleated cells
platelets- discoid cytoplasmic fragments containing granules

45

components of blood in %

Plasma: 55%
Formed elements (cells): 45%
Buffy coat (leukocytes (WBC) & platelets): 1%

46

how much water is in plasma? (%)

90%

47

function of water in plasma

solvent carrying other substances; absorbs heat

48

function of salts (electrolytes) in plasma

osmotic balance, pH buffering, regulation of membrane permeability

49

substances transported by the blood in plasma?
(5)

nutrients
waste products
respiratory gases
hormones
buffers

50

function of RBC

transport oxygen and help transport CO2

51

function of WBC

defense & immunity

52

function of platelets

blood clotting