Respiratory System Gas Exchange Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System Gas Exchange Deck (16):
1

Gas Exchange
what are the types (2)?

External Respiration (pulmonary gas exchange)
Internal Respiration (Tissue/blood gas exchange (systemic))

2

Gas Exchange
External & Internal Respiration, what do they use? Air? Gases?

Use diffusion from high to low concentration of gas pressures
Air- mixture of gases
-Each gas has a partial pressure

3

External Respiration
def? btwn? alveoli? rate...? what occurs O2 & CO2?

Gas exchange btwn blood & lungs
-btwn alveoli & pulmonary capillaries
-Alveoli provide a large surface area for gas exchange
-RATE AND DEPTH OF BREATHING CONTROLS GAS CONCENTRATIONS (EX: high when running, low when sitting)
-O2 diffuses from alveoli into capillaries
-CO2 diffuses from capillaries to alveoli

4

Internal Respiration
def? determined by? whats occurs w/ O2 & CO2?

-Gas exchange btwn tissue cells & blood of systemic system
-DETERMINED BY RATE OF METABOLISM OF CELLS THAT CONSUME & PRODUCE O2 & CO2 (more chemicals, more O2) (EX: lifting, more O2 in cells)
-O2 diffuses from capillaries into interstitial fluid to body cells
-CO2 diffuses from cells to interstitial fluid to systemic capillaries

5

Gas Transport : Oxygen
how many ways is oxygen carried? what are they?

Oxygen carried by blood in 2 ways:
1) 98.5% bound to hemoglobin in RBC's
-Oxyhemoglobin
-4 molecules/hemoglobin molecule (8 O2 atoms)
2) dissolved in blood plasma - 1.5%

6

Hypoxia

insufficient O2 delivery to body tissues
(Turn blue/purple, hyperventilating)

7

why do we breath in and out? (2)

breath in and out bc pressure difference
O2 needed for chemical reactions in the body

8

Gas Transport : Carbon Dioxide
how much produced? how many ways is it transported? what are they?

-Body cells produced 200ml of CO2/min which is equal to amount released by lungs (amount produced, what you put out)
-Blood transports CO2 from tissue cells 3 ways:
1) 7% CO2 dissolved in plasma
2) 23% chemically bonded to hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin)
3) 70% as part of a bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) in plasma

9

COPD stands for?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

10

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)
what is it? includes (2)? common symptoms (5)?

Irreversible decrease in ability to force air out of lungs
-Include: Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis
Common Symptoms:
-80% have history of smoking
-Dyspnea- labored breathing, progressively gets worse
-Coughing
-Frequent pulmonary infections
-Respiratory failure- hypoventilation
-Retain CO2

11

Emphysema
def? what happens? (3) leads to what?

-permanent enlargement of alveoli (stuck being large, why larger lung capacity)
-destruction of alveolar walls
-lungs loose elasticity
-bronchioles open during inspiration- collapse during expiration
-traps large volume of air in alveoli
-leads to "barrel chest"
(taking air in, can't get it all back out->waste stuck in lung)
(stage 1: smokers cough, 2: cant stop cough 3: O2, 4: get O2 from cells-> stroke)

12

Chronic Bronchitis

-Inhaled irritants lead to excessive mucous production
-Mucous membrane in lower respiratory passageways become inflamed
-Obstructive airways
-impairs gas exchange
(ppl who work in chemical factories/ fields)

13

Tuberculosis (TB)

-Infectious bacterial disease
-Spread by coughing & inhaling infected air
-1/3 of world's population is infected
-most ppl don't develop active TB bc of immune responses
-Symptoms: fever, night sweats, weight loss, racking cough, coughing up blood (last stage of consumption)
-Treatment: 12 months antibiotics

14

what is really bad for these respiratory diseases?

humidity

15

what is most O2 carried by?

hemoglobin

16

what is most CO2 carried by?

bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)