Flashcards in Respiratory System Gas Exchange Deck (16):
what are the types (2)?
External Respiration (pulmonary gas exchange)
Internal Respiration (Tissue/blood gas exchange (systemic))
External & Internal Respiration, what do they use? Air? Gases?
Use diffusion from high to low concentration of gas pressures
Air- mixture of gases
-Each gas has a partial pressure
def? btwn? alveoli? rate...? what occurs O2 & CO2?
Gas exchange btwn blood & lungs
-btwn alveoli & pulmonary capillaries
-Alveoli provide a large surface area for gas exchange
-RATE AND DEPTH OF BREATHING CONTROLS GAS CONCENTRATIONS (EX: high when running, low when sitting)
-O2 diffuses from alveoli into capillaries
-CO2 diffuses from capillaries to alveoli
def? determined by? whats occurs w/ O2 & CO2?
-Gas exchange btwn tissue cells & blood of systemic system
-DETERMINED BY RATE OF METABOLISM OF CELLS THAT CONSUME & PRODUCE O2 & CO2 (more chemicals, more O2) (EX: lifting, more O2 in cells)
-O2 diffuses from capillaries into interstitial fluid to body cells
-CO2 diffuses from cells to interstitial fluid to systemic capillaries
Gas Transport : Oxygen
how many ways is oxygen carried? what are they?
Oxygen carried by blood in 2 ways:
1) 98.5% bound to hemoglobin in RBC's
-4 molecules/hemoglobin molecule (8 O2 atoms)
2) dissolved in blood plasma - 1.5%
insufficient O2 delivery to body tissues
(Turn blue/purple, hyperventilating)
why do we breath in and out? (2)
breath in and out bc pressure difference
O2 needed for chemical reactions in the body
Gas Transport : Carbon Dioxide
how much produced? how many ways is it transported? what are they?
-Body cells produced 200ml of CO2/min which is equal to amount released by lungs (amount produced, what you put out)
-Blood transports CO2 from tissue cells 3 ways:
1) 7% CO2 dissolved in plasma
2) 23% chemically bonded to hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin)
3) 70% as part of a bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) in plasma
COPD stands for?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)
what is it? includes (2)? common symptoms (5)?
Irreversible decrease in ability to force air out of lungs
-Include: Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis
-80% have history of smoking
-Dyspnea- labored breathing, progressively gets worse
-Frequent pulmonary infections
-Respiratory failure- hypoventilation
def? what happens? (3) leads to what?
-permanent enlargement of alveoli (stuck being large, why larger lung capacity)
-destruction of alveolar walls
-lungs loose elasticity
-bronchioles open during inspiration- collapse during expiration
-traps large volume of air in alveoli
-leads to "barrel chest"
(taking air in, can't get it all back out->waste stuck in lung)
(stage 1: smokers cough, 2: cant stop cough 3: O2, 4: get O2 from cells-> stroke)
-Inhaled irritants lead to excessive mucous production
-Mucous membrane in lower respiratory passageways become inflamed
-impairs gas exchange
(ppl who work in chemical factories/ fields)
-Infectious bacterial disease
-Spread by coughing & inhaling infected air
-1/3 of world's population is infected
-most ppl don't develop active TB bc of immune responses
-Symptoms: fever, night sweats, weight loss, racking cough, coughing up blood (last stage of consumption)
-Treatment: 12 months antibiotics
what is really bad for these respiratory diseases?
what is most O2 carried by?