Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (54):
1

how many times does the heart beat per day?

beats 100,000 times per day

2

blood is pumped through how many miles of blood vessels?

75,000

3

how many liters of blood is pumped per day.?

pumps 14,000 L per day - more if active

4

size of heart?

approx. size of human fist
5 1/2 " long, 3 1/2 " wide, 2 1/2 " thick

5

weight of the heart in oz?

8-10 oz

6

location of heart

lies in the mediastium area on top of diaphragm

7

how much of the heart is on the left side of the body?

2/3 of heart mass is left of the body's midline

8

what is the tip (bottom) of the heart called?

Apex

9

pericardium
def? layers?

membrane surrounds & protects heart
consists of 2 layers
-fibrous pericardium
-serous pericardium
-parietal layer
-visceral layer

10

parietal layer consists of ?

pericardial cavity- pericardial fluid

11

visceral layer
aka?

epicardium
(directly attached to organs)

12

fibrous pericardium
description? location? function (3)?

tough, non-elastic, dense irregular connective tissue
attaches to diaphragm
FUNCTION: -prevents overstretching of heart
-protection -anchors heart in cavity

13

serous pericardium
consists of (2)? location of both? contain? description?

parietal layer (outer)
-fused to fibrous pericardium
visceral layer
-tightly adhered to heart
-part of outer heart wall- epicardium
-pericardial cavity
-pericardial fluid (serous fluid)
-reduces friction as heart moves

14

heart wall, how many layers?

3

15

what are the 3 layers of the heart wall?

epicardium
myocardium
endocardium

16

epicardium
location? made up of?

external (visceral layer)
-adipose & fibroelastic tissue
-blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, coronary arteries

17

myocardium
location? made up of? job? description?

middle layer
-95% of heart wall
-cardiac muscle, pumping action
(thickest, actual heart muscle)

18

endocardium
location? made up of? function?

internal layer
-thin layer endothelium & thin layer of connective
-provides smooth lining of chambers and
covers valves

19

heart chambers
heart is enclosed in what?

heart enclosed in pericardium (protective sac)

20

2 receiving chambers

right & left atria (plural for atrium)

21

2 pumping chambers

right & left ventricles

22

heart chambers
right vs left side what kind of blood?

right side deals w/ deoxygenated blood
left side takes care of oxygenated blood

23

heart valves (2)?

atrioventricular (AV) valves
semilunar (SL) valves

24

atrioventricular (AV) valves
function (2)? includes (2)? # for each?

separates atrium from ventricle
-tricuspid valve (right side)
-3 flaps
-bicuspid/mitral valve (left side)
-2 flaps
withstands high pressures from contracting ventricles

25

semilunar (SL) valves
function? includes (2)? deals with?

separates ventricle from major artery (no strings attached)
-pulmonary valve (right side)
-aortic valve (left side)
-deals w/ smaller volumes of blood
-lowers blood pressure exerted on valves

26

arteries
def? pulmonary arteries?

blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart
(pulmonary arteries blue bc deoxygenated blood to lungs, red when come back)

27

veins

blood vessels that carry blood TOWARDS the heart

28

how's blood supplied to the heart and how is it drained...into?

heart itself has blood supplied through coronary arteries from the aorta, & drains through coronary sinus into right atrium

29

which valves have strings attached?

atrioventricular (AV) valves

30

what does the pulmonary semilunar valve do?

prevents backflow of blood into right ventricle

31

what does the tricuspid valve do?

prevents backflow of blood into right atrium

32

what does the interventricular septum do?

separates the right & left ventricles of the heart

33

what does the aortic semilunar valve do?

prevents backflow of blood into left ventricle

34

what does the bicuspid (mitral) valve do?

prevents backflow of blood into left atrium

35

what does the chordae tendineae do?

connects valves to papillary muscles

36

what do the papillary muscles do?

prevent valve cusps from going into the atria

37

what does the pericardium do?

pericardium covers and protects the heart

38

right atrium receives ___ blood from the ____

oxygen-poor blood, body

39

left atrium receives ____ blood from the ___

oxygen-rich blood, lungs

40

left ventricle pumps ______ blood to the ____

oxygen-rich blood, body

41

right ventricle pumps _____ blood to the ___

oxygen-poor blood, lungs

42

order of heart layers from superficial to deep

fibrous pericardium
parietal layer (of serous pericardium) (contains pericardial cavity)
visceral layer/epicardium (of serous pericardium)
myocardium (heart wall)
endocardium

43

what does the pericardial cavity reduce friction btwn?

btwn myocardium & pericardium

44

what does the endocardium do?

lines the inner chambers of the heart

45

what does the epicardium do?

thin outer layer of the heart (lines organ)

46

cardiac cells in myocardium
description (3)? gap junctions?

often branched
numerous, large mitochondria
one large nucleus
gap junctions allow ions to pass directly from 1 cell to another to propagate action potentials

47

intercalated discs dealing w/ cardiac cells in myocardium

thickenings of plasma membrane where 2 cardiac cells come together, they hole the cells together and contain gap junctions

48

what do coronary blood vessels (arteries, veins) supply and remove?

supply oxygen and nutrients to heart
remove carbon dioxide and other wastes

49

Systemic circulation (circuit)

-where gas exchange occurs through tissues
-carries blood to the body
-involves Left side of heart

50

Pulmonary circulation (circuit)

-where gas exchange occurs through lungs
-carries blood to lungs
-involves Right side of heart

51

what's the function of the heart

pump blood

52

arteries carry ____ blood, veins carry ____ blood

arteries carry oxygenated
veins carry deoxygenated

53

compare right & left side of the heart

right side- deoxygenated blood & pulmonary circuit (involving pulmonary artery)
left side- oxygenated blood & systemic circuit (involving aorta)

54

heart is actually 2 pumps in 1 casing:
right side= ___ pressure
left side= ____ pressure

right- low pressure
left- high pressure