Integumentary System (Your Skin) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Integumentary System (Your Skin) Deck (121):
1

What does the integumentary system include?

Skin
Hair
Oil and sweat glands
Nails
Sense receptors (touch, hot/cold)

2

Subcutaneous layer

Lies under skin layers
Areolar and adipose tissue
Storage depot

3

Skin layers

Epidermis (top layer)
Superficial layer
Epithelial tissue

Dermis (underneath)
Mainly connective tissue with elastic fibers
3 pigments make up skin color

4

What 4 cell types does the epidermis contain?

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Langerhan cells
Merkel cells

5

Epidermal layers? Thick vs thin

Mostly thin skin - 4 layers on body
Thick skin - 5 layers (palms and soles of feet)

6

What are the 5 layers from deepest to superficial?

Stratum basale (how cells are made, bottom)
Spinosum
Granulosum
Lucidium (only in thick)
Corneum (top layer)

7

What happens during keratinization ?

New cells made in the stratum basale layer
Cells move up from one epidermal layer to the next.
Definition- Accumulate more keratin as they move to top of skin
Dead cells slough (fall) off
Takes about 4 wks from stratum basale to rise to surface
- excessive amount shed from scalp is DANDRUFF

8

What's dandruff

Excessive amount of dead keratin cells shed from the scalp (part of keratinization process)

9

What does the dermis layer include?
-type of tissue?
-what does it have?

Dense irregular connective tissue
-collagen and elastic fibers
Divided into 2 regions
-papillary: more superficial
-reticular: deeper

10

What is in the papillary region ? (In the dermis)

(Superficial)
-areolar tissue with elastic fibers
DERMAL PAPILLAE: finger-like projections that project into epidermis
- finger print region
- contain blood capillaries
-nerve endings (sensory receptors)

11

What are the nerve endings in the dermal papillae in the papillary region in the dermis region? (2)

Meissner corpuscles- touch
Free nerve endings- warmth, pain, coolness, tickling, itching

12

What does the reticular region include in the dermis region?
-tissue?
-has?

(Deeper)
-attached to subcutaneous layer
-dense irregular connective tissue w/ collagen and elastic fibers
Provides:
-skin strength
-extensibility
-elasticity
Hair follicles, nerves, oil glands, sweat glands

13

What 3 pigments produce skin color?

Melanin
Hemoglobin
Carotene

14

What in the cell causes cancer?

When the nucleus mutates (why when melanocytes are produced, then protect the nucleus)

15

Melanin distribution can result in albinism
What is albinism

Inherited trait where no melanin is produced

16

Melanin distribution can result in freckles
What are freckles?

Melanin accumulates in patches

17

Melanin distribution can result in age spots
What are age spots?

Melanin accumulation with age & forms flat blemishes

18

Melanin distribution can result in Nevus (mole)
What is nevus

Localized overgrowth of melanocytes
-round, flat, or raised areas

19

Melanin distribution can result in vitiligo
What is vitiligo?

Condition where melanocytes are partially or completely lost from areas of skin
-irregular white areas on skin

20

What is hemoglobin?

O2 carrying pigment molecules in red blood cells (why we blush!)
In light skin, plays larger role in reddish hue of skin
-oxygen content in epidermal capillaries

21

What's carotene?

Yellow-orange pigment
Precursor of Vitamin A
Accumulates in stratum corneum (top layer of skin) and fatty dermis areas

22

What is melanin?

Amount and shades produce all skin colors
-pale yellow to black
Absorbs UV light for protection
Melanocytes (produce melanin) in stratum basale and mucous membranes in body
All races have equal # of melanocytes
Difference in color is amount of melanin produced (ancestors location determine melanin production, evolutionary history!)

23

Skin/ integumentary system is also known as?

Cutaneous membrane

24

Hair
-what is it?
-location?
-description?
-types?

Columns of dead, keratinized epidermal cells
Not on soles of feet or palms
Hair thickness and pattern determined by genetics and hormones (it's hereditary, gray early)
Body hair, scalp hair, eyebrows/eyelashes

25

Body hair

Sense light touch

26

Scalp hair

Protects from UV light and decreases heat loss
-lose about 70-100 scalp hairs per day

27

Eyebrows/eyelashes

Protect eyes from particles

28

What glands do we have?

Sebaceous (oil) glands
Sweat glands
Ceruminous glands

29

Sebaceous glands
What are they?
Location?
Function?

Oils glands
Connected to hair follicles
Secrete sebum
-lipids and cell debris (dead skin & hair cells)
Function:
-softens skin, waterproofing surface
- blackheads
- pimples and boils

30

Blackheads

Enlarged sebaceous glands with accumulated sebum

31

Pimples and boils

Bacteria metabolizing sebum

32

Sweat glands
What are they?
Location? Function?

Sudoriferous glands
3-4 million per person
Deep dermis, subcutaneous layers
Release sweat into hair follicles or on skin surface through pores
Two main types:
Eccrine & Apocrine sweat glands

33

Eccrine sweat gland characteristics

Most common sweat gland
Located throughout body regions
Produce watery sweat that regulates body temp.

34

Apocrine sweat gland characteristics

Limited to axillary (armpit) and public regions
Produces thicker sweat; often released during emotional stress
Water w/ electrolytes & metabolic waste
(Release into hair follicles!)

35

Ceruminous glands

Earwax glands
In ear canal & outer ear
Secrete cerumen
-lipids and cell debris
-prohibits entry of debris from entering eat canal

36

Nails
What are they?
Function?

Plates of hard, tightly packed dead keratinized epithelial cells of epidermis
Function: -protect ends of fingers & toes
- Aids in grasping objects

37

Accessory structure of the integumentary system include?

Hair nails and glands

38

Pathology of the skin includes

Acne, burns, and skin cancer

39

Acne
How is it caused?
What is it actually called?

Acne vulgaris- affects 96% of adolescents & young adults to some degree
Cause- accumulation of sebum and dead cells within sebaceous glands
-occasionally infected with bacteria resulting in inflammation & formation of a pustule (pimple)
Male sex hormones (like TESTOSTERONE) are primary cause

40

Wounds
What do they include?
Definition?

Common skin pathology; defined as any disruption in skin's integrity
Includes:
-lacerations (cuts)
-burns
-skin cancers

41

Cancer
Definition?
Cause?

One of the most common diseases in the world; caused by mutations in DNA that induce a cell to lose control of cell cycle

42

(Cancer), unchecked cell division
Leads to?

This eventually leads to formation of a large population of undifferentiated cells known as a tumor

43

What are cancerous tumors about to do?

They are able to metastasize
-tumors cells spread through blood or lymphatic vessels to other tissues & continue to divide

Most, but not all cancer cells do this. SPREAD, circulated throughout the body!

44

How many cancers affect the skin?
What are they linked to?

3
Linked to UV radiation exposure

45

What are the other factors that can increase risk for developing cancer, besides UV exposure

Exposure to:
-Cancer-inducing chemicals, toxins or agents called carcinogens
-Forms of radiation

46

Norciceptors

free nerve endings that sense pain rapidly. other free nerve endings sense tickle, itch, and some touch

47

Merkel (tactic) disc

slowly sense touch near surface (skin receptor)

48

Meissner corpuscle

rapidly senses touch near surface (skin receptor)

49

Ruffini corpuscle

slowly senses stretching in deep layers of skin (skin receptor)

50

hair root plexus

senses movement of the hair (skin receptor)

51

pacinian corpuscle

senses pressure (skin receptor)

52

rules of nines
used for?

used to estimate the surface area affected by burns in an adult
-method for estimating how much body has been affected by a burn
- grades extent of burn
-body divided into 11 areas representing 9% of the total body area

53

whats a burn?

wound caused by agents such as heat, extreme cold, electricity, chemicals, and radiation

54

how to classify burns?

3 classes according to EXTENT & DEPTH of the tissue damage

55

Location of each burn?

1st- epidermis only
2nd- epidermis and part or all of the dermis
3rd- epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and possibly deeper tissues

56

What does the 1st degree burn include?
characteristics, treatment, and example

-mild pain
-redness (no blisters)
-skin functions normally
- treatment: flush w/ cold water to relieve pain
-heals within 3-6 days
-example: sunburn/grasp hot iron

57

What does the 2nd degree burn include?
characteristics, treatment, and example

(partial thickness burns)
-pain/scarring
-redness -ex. sunburn badly to get blisters
-blisters (epidermis separates from underlying layers & fluid fills void)
-edema
-hair follicles & glands are NOT injured
- some skin function is lost
-if no infection and no grafting required, heals within 3-4 wks

58

What does the 3rd degree burn include?
characteristics, treatment, and example

-severe pain (burned region is numb due to nerve damage)
-not generally painful @ first bc nerves are destroyed
-marked edema -MOST damaging wound
-marble-white to black color
-most skin functions are lost
-tissue damage (major)
-susceptible to infection
-slow healing
-may require skin graft to promote healing & minimize scarring
-loss of hair follicles

59

hair shaft

projects above the skin surface

60

sebaceous gland applies to hair how?

its ATTACHED to the HAIR FOLLICLE
its why hair gets oily

61

hair root plexus

nerve endings surround hair follicle- sensitive to touch

62

Arrector pili muscle

bundle of smooth muscle attached to follicle
contraction causes hairs to stand up ("goose bumps")

63

bulb
contains?

area at the base of the hair
contains blood vessels, melanocytes
contains hair matrix- responsible for hair growth

64

hair follicle

surrounds root portion of the hair

65

cuticle

fold of epidermis that hides nail root
(stratum corneum of epidermis)

66

nail root

buried in fold of skin
(portion that is not visible)

67

lunula

thick, white part of nail
(white half moon)

68

nail body

(plate) visible portion of the nail
pink due to underlying blood vessels

69

nail matrix
contains?

proximal portion (of the nail root)
contains dividing cells, which produce new nail cells
-keratinization takes place as nails grow outwards
-growth: 1mm/week

70

free edge

extends past the finger or toe

71

What are the 3 types of skin cancer?

basal cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant melanoma

72

basal cell carcinoma

-most common of all cancer types
-skin is regularly exposed to UV radiation
- RARELY metastasize to other tissues
-can be resolved successfully w/ surgical removal (using liquid nitrogen)
-cancer of keratinocytes in stratum basale; generally forms a nodule w/ "cratered" center
- (its red/pink easily curable, and usually flaky)

73

squamous cell carcinoma

-second most common of all cancer types
-tumors more likely to metastasize than basal, surgical removal still useful
-may ulcerate & bleed
-cancer of keratinocytes in stratum spinosum (3rd layer); forms scaly plaques that bleed or ulcerate
-(usually on head & neck)

74

malignant melanoma

- CANCER OF MELANOCYTES
-"arms" of cancerous melanocytes extend down into dermis & access dermal blood vessels; enables cells to spread to other tissues via bloodstream
-treated w/ surgical removal & possibly radiation therapy or chemo
-prognosis depends on size of tumor, depth to which it extends into dermis

75

what does malgnant melanoma start out as?

moles

76

How can malignant melanoma be distinguished?
what does it need to be distinguished from?

can be distinguished from other skin cancers & normal moles using ABCDE rule

77

whats the ABCDE rule for malignant melanoma?

A: Asymmetrical shape (2 sides do NOT match)
B: Border irregularity
C: Color, usually blue-black or variety of colors
D: Diameter generally larger than 6mm (size of pencil eraser)
E: Evolving (changing) shape & size

78

Process used to heal a wound in the dermis vs epidermis

dermis: fibrosis
epidermis: regeneration

79

what are skins (mostly dermis) functions?

protects body, regulates body temp, detects cutaneous sensations
makes vitamin D, & excretes & absorbs various substances

80

what color are each blood vessel?

red- artery (usually thicker)
blue- vein

81

describe sebaceous oil glands

lie in the dermis
open into hair follicles or directly onto the skin
secrete oil sebum which....
-keeps hair from drying out
-prevents excessive water evaporation from the skin
-keeps skin soft
-inhibits growth of certain bacteria

82

describe eccrine sudoriferous sweat glands

found throughout the body
-secretory portion in deep dermis
-open directly to OUTSIDE through pores
-secrete watery sweat in response to rise in temp and emotions
-most common sweat gland
-remove heat by evaporation, thereby cooling the skin

83

describe apocrine sudoriferous sweat glands

found in axillae, groin, areolae, and beards
-secretory portion in subcutaneous layer
-open into HAIR FOLLICLE
-secrete viscous milky or yellow sweat in response to EMOTIONS
-sweat similar to eccrine but contains lipids and proteins
-sweat interacts with bacteria & produces body odor

84

which part of the hair is actively mitotic (growing)?

hair matrix, (which is in the bulb)

85

which epidermal stratum is absent in thin skin?

stratum lucidum

86

which parts of the skin are responsible for fingerprints?

papillary layer (this is in the dermis which includes the dermal papilla)

87

what comes after (deep to) the 4 or 5 layers in the epidermis?

the papillary layer of the dermis

88

list specific cell types and # of cell layers in each stratum

basale- keratinocytes, merkel cells, melanocytes, & langerhan cells, 1 layer
spinosum- langerhan cells, keratinocytes, 5-7 layers
granulosum- keratinocytes, 3-5 layers
lucidum- keratinocytes, 2-3 layers
corneum- dead keratinocytes, 20-30 cell layers

89

how does melanin aid in protection of the body?

absorbs UV light, protects skin from skin cancer

90

how does keratinization aid in protection of the body?

new cells are made in stratum basale and keratinization is the process/movement that moves them up from 1 epidermal layer to the next as they accumulate keratin
replenish old/dead cells

91

how do free nerve endings aid in protection of the body?

senses pain & temperature (hot and cold)

92

which layer of skin contains the most accessory organs

dermis

93

which layer of skin contains pacinian corpuscles

dermis

94

which layer of skin contains a basement membrane

epidermis (bottom layer (stratum basale) its in epithelial cells!)

95

which layer of skin can be subdivided in to five more layers

epidermis

96

You go to the beach to swim on an extremely hot sunny afternoon. Describe two ways in which your
integumentary system acts to preserve homeostasis during your outing.

sweat to maintain normal body temp & skin protects you from UV rays
-sweat cools down body (eccrine)
-melanin (melanocytes provide protection from UV)

97

Everyone has roughly the same number of melanocytes, however we do not have the same color skin.
Explain how this is possible

amount of melanin produced in each person by their melanocytes is different

98

Describe how inflammation helps a wound heal

it sets the stage, there is an increase in blood flow to the wound. more white bloods cells rush to area and attack antibodies. inflammation lets proteins and other substances seep into fluid to form a scab/clot

99

Fibrosis

in the dermis
blood clot forms
immune cells, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells migrate into the wound
scab forms
epithelial cells bridge wound beneath it
fibroblasts help form scar tissue
blood vessel walls grow, reseal and restore normal blood flow

100

regeneration

in epidermis
basal epithelial cells detach from basement membrane
they go into the wound and enlarge
adjacent basal cells slide into the wound
epidermal growth factor stimulates stem cells to divide and replace migrating cells
when the cells meet, they stop moving, grow, and build new layers completing the wound repair

101

You’re outside on a 100° day and you’re sweaty
which sweat gland and why?

eccrine (most common) usually sweat with this gland

102

Right before a blind date, your get nervous and your palms get “clammy”.

apocrine sweat gland EMOTION

103

Arrector pili muscles must be attached to which accessory organ?

hair follicle

104

Chemotherapy is designed to attack rapidly growing and dividing cells. Based on what you know about
the skin, list three locations (including in accessory organs) that would be possible targets.

epidermis, hair and nails
(skin has rashes, lose hair and nails)

105

On an outdoor picnic, an ant crawls onto your hand, causing you to flinch.
accessory organ?

meissner corpuscles and merkel (body hair)

106

As you are cooking dinner, you accidentally grab a hot pot handle and spill the food on the floor.
accessory organ?

free nerve endings

107

Before going on stage, your armpits begin to sweat.
accessory organ?

apocrine sweat gland

108

A long lost friend sees you for the first time in years, and greets you by giving you a hug.
accessory organ?

(skin receptors)
-meissner & merkel: touch
-pancinian corpuscles: pressure

109

Blackheads are caused by the clogging of pores by oily secretions.
accessory organ?

sebaceous (oil) gland

110

While at the beach, you forget sunscreen and get a burn bad enough to form blisters.
degree?

2nd degree

111

You accidentally brush a hot iron with your hand, but 10 minutes later its better.
degree?

1st

112

In this type of burn, like that from a fire, skin grafting is usually necessary
degree?

3rd

113

causes of vitiligo and how it affects the skin?

melanocytes are partially or completely lost from areas of the skin
causes irregular white areas on the skin

114

causes of melanoma and how it affects the skin?

caused by too much exposure to the suns UV rays
ABCDE rule

115

why do elderly people get colder, over heat, and have wrinkles?

colder- not as much blood flow through tissues, heat carried by blood isnt there
over heat- sweat glands dont sweat as much, body doesnt cool down
wrinkles- loose collagen & elastic fibers, reticular skin fibers too with age so their is no more plumpness/elasticity just wrinkles

116

why do wrinkles occur?

age, lose collagen, elastic, & reticular fibers
part of genetics, sun exposure, and make-up (stretching of skin)

117

Langerhan cells

Immune response for skin
(Kills bacteria that might want to enter skin)

118

Merkel cells

Least numerous
Detect touch sensations

119

Keratinocytes

90% of epidermal cells
Keratin- waterproofing protein

120

Melanocytes

Produce melanin
Skin color pigment

121

What kind of cells are in epidermis

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelial