Digestive System Review Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Digestive System Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Review Deck (44):
1

2 main functions of the digestive system

1. Mechanical & chemical break down of food
2. Absorption of nutrients by cell membranes

2

The mouth, esophagus, stomach, large & small intestines make up the ___ ____ of the digestive system

alimentary canal

3

Alimentary canal aka?

GI tract

4

The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are the ___ ___ of the digestive system

accessory organs

5

The layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that is formed of epithelium and protects underlying tissue and allows absorption and secretion is the ___ layer

mucosa

6

The layer of the alimentary canal that keeps the outer surface moist and slippery is the ___ layer

serosa

7

The 2 basic types of movement of the alimentary canal are?

1. Propelling movements
2. Mixing movements

8

The salivary glands that secrete amylase are the ___ glands

parotid

9

There are ___ pairs of salivary glands

3

10

When food enters the esophagus, it's transported to the stomach by a movement called __

peristalsis

11

The area of the stomach that acts as a temporary storage is the ___ region

Fundus

12

The chief cells of the gastric glands secrete ___

pepsinogen

13

The digestive enzyme pepsin secreted by the gastric glands begins the digestion of ___

protein (break down proteins)

14

The semifluid paste formed in the stomach by mixing food and gastric secretions is called ___

chyme

15

The type of food that stays the longest in the stomach are ___

fatty foods

16

Pancreatic enzymes travel along the pancreatic duct and empty into the ____ of the small intestine.

duodenum

17

The function of the gallbladder is to ________

store bile & release bile into small intestine through the common bile duct

18

What is the function of bile?

Aid in fat digestion (breaks down fat into smaller globules)

19

The large intestine secretes mainly ___

mucous

20

The digestive function of the liver is to ___

produce bile to digest fats

21

The most abundant substance in feces is ___

cellulose

22

Salivary amylase

breaks down carbohydrates (starch) into disaccharides

23

Lipase

breaks down fats (into fatty acids and glycerol)

24

Pepsin

breaks down protein (into polypeptides (begins protein digestion))

25

Trypsin

breaks down proteins (into polypeptides)

26

Peptidase

breaks down peptides into amino acids

27

Nuclease

breaks down nucleic acids

28

Name 3 functions of the liver

1. Maintains carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolisms
2. Storage- glycogen, iron, vitamin A, D, K, & B12
3. Detoxification of blood (alcohol and drugs)
4. Blood filteration- phagocytizes RBC, WBC, some bacteria
5. Produces bile (bile salts)

29

List, in order from pylorus to the colon, the 3 regions of the small intestine

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

30

List the 4 regions of the stomach

Cardia region
Fundus region
Body region
Pyloric region

31

Structure that hold together the small intestine from the posterior body wall

mesentary

32

Fingerlike extensions of the intestinal wall that increase surface area for absorption

villi

33

mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth & initiates swallowing

tongue

34

conduit for both air & food

pharynx

35

no digestive/absorptive function part of the alimentary canal

esophagus

36

folds of the stomach lining

rugae

37

'outpouchings' of the large intestine

haustra

38

projections of the plasma membrane of the villi

microvilli

39

primary region of food and water absorption

small intestine

40

absorbs water and forms feces

large intestine

41

wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum

appendix

42

initiates protein digestion

stomach

43

controls food movement from the stomach into the duodenum

pyloric sphincter

44

region containing 2 sphincters through which feces are expelled

anus