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Flashcards in Joints (articulations) Deck (45):
1

joints also known as

articulations

2

what is true for every bone

every bone is connected to at least 1 other bone

3

functional classifications of joints. how are they classified? what are the types?

classified by how much motion they allow
1. synarthrosis
2. amphiarthrosis
3. diarthosis

4

after functional, how are they classified?

structural classification
classified by structure features

5

how are the structural classifications split up?

fibrous joints
cartilaginous joints
synovial joints

6

what do fibrous joints include?

- joined by dense regular collagenous connective tissue
- NO joint space btwn articulating bone
- Can be synarthrosis or amphiarthrosis

7

types of fibrous joints (3)

Sutures
Syndesmosis
Gumphosis

8

what do sutures include?

(fibrous joint)
-joined by short fibers, immovable joints
-EX: bones of skull

9

what does syndesmosis include?

(fibrous joint)
-joint by short ligaments
-small amount of movement
-EX: btwn tibia & fibula, ulna & radius

10

what does gumphosis include?

(fibrous joint)
-joined by short ligament, immovable
-EX: btwn tooth & bony socket (why so hard to pull teeth out)

11

Types of cartilaginous joints (2)

symphysis
synchondrosis

12

what does symphysis include?

(cartilaginous joint)
-flat disc or plug of FIBROcartilage
-amphiathrosis
-EX: intervertebral joints, pubic symphysis

13

what does synchondrosis include?

(cartilaginous joint)
0-bones connected by HYALINE cartilage
-synarthrosis
-EX: ribs & sternum, epiphyseal plates

14

how are synovial joints described?

-bone ends separated by joint cavity
-joint surface enclosed in articular capsule (connective tissue)
-freely movable but less stability
-most body joints

15

structural elements of synovial joints (6)

-joint cavity
-articular cartilage
-synovial fluid
-avascular
-articular capsule
-adispose tissue, nerves, & blood vessles

16

what are the support structures in synovial joints?

ligaments
tendons
bursa

17

difference between the 3 support structures in synovial joints?

ligaments- links BONE to bone
tendons- connects MUSCLE to bone
bursa- synovial fluid filled psace btwn movable parts (protects joint)

18

classes of synovial joints (4)
where does the movement occur? around?

synovial joint movement occurs in different planes around an axis

-nonaxial joints
-uniaxial joints
-biaxial joints
-multiaxial joints

19

describe a nonaxial joint
example?

motion occurs in 1 OR MORE planes not around an axis
-EX: between carpals

20

describe a uniaxial joint
example?

motion occurs around 1 axis
-EX: elbow joint

21

describe a biaxial joint
example?

motion occurs around 2 axes
-EX: proximal phalanges & metacarpals

22

describe a multiaxial joint
example?

motion occurs around 3 axes
-EX: shoulder

23

types of synovial joints? (6)

gliding or plane
hinge
pivot
ball & socket
condyloid
saddle

24

what does gliding or plane include?

(synovial joint)
-btwn flat surfaces of 2 bones
-nonaxial
-EX: intercarpals (btwn carpals & metacarpals, btwn wrist bone), intertarsals, vertebrae

25

what does hinge include?

(synovial joint)
-rounded (convex surface) of 1 bone fits into a concave surface of other bone
-EX: elbow (and knee, like hinge on a door)

26

what does pivot include?

(synovial joint)
-round end of 1 bone rests in shallow groove of another bone
-uniaxial- pivots or rotates
-EX: btwn axis/atlas & radius/ulna (when turning head, first vertebrae called atlas, second is axis)

27

what does condyloid include?

(synovial joint)
-convex surface of 1 bone fits into shallow concave surface of another bone
-biaxial
-EX: occipital/atlas (nod & shake head) , metacarpals/phalanges (move finger out & up/down)

28

what does saddle include?

(synovial joint)
-both bones have both a concave & convex region
-biaxial
-EX: btwn thumb metacarpals/ wrist bone, sternum/clavicle

29

what does ball & socket include?

(synovial joint)
-spherical part of 1 bone fits into cuplike depression of the other bone
-multiaxial
-EX: shoulder, hip

30

movements at synovial joints (7)
what does this mean? motion?

specific types of angular motion
-flexion
-extension
-hyperextension
-abduction
-adduction
-curcumduction
-rotation

31

what is flexion?

angular motion
DECREASES angle btwn articulating bones by bringing bones closer to one another
(EX. bicep flex)

32

what is extension?

angular motion
INCREASES angle btwn articulating bones, articulating bones move away from one another
(EX. wave hand formation)

33

what is hyperextension?

angular motion
extension BEYOND anatomical position of joint
(EX. waitress)

34

what is abduction?

angular motion
motion of a body part AWAY from midline of body or another reference point
(EX. jumping jacks going to form X)

35

what is adduction?

angular motion
motion of a body part TOWARDS midline of body or another reference point
(EX. jumping jacks to start position)

36

what is circumduction?

angular motion
freely movbeable distal bone moves on a fixed proximal bone in a CONE-SHAPED MOTION; combination of flexion-extension & abduction-adduction
(EX. fast pitch pitcher's wind up circle)

37

what is rotation?

nonangular motion
one bone rotates on an imaginary line running down its middle longitudinal axis
(EX. ballet, 1st->2nd position)

38

special movements at synovial joints (12)

-opposition -reposition
-depression -elavation
-protraction -retraction
-inversion -eversion
-dorsiflexion -plantarflexion
-supination -pronation

39

what is opposition and reposition?

opposition: opposition of thumb at first carpometacarpal joint allows thumb to MOVE ACROSS PALMAR SURFACE
repositon: reposition is OPPOSITE MOVEMENT that returns thumb to ANATOMICAL position
BOTH INVOLVE THUMB MOVEMENT

40

what is depression and elevation?

depression: movement of a body part in an INFERIOR direction (below another body part/ towards the feet)
elevation: moves a body part in a SUPERIOR (toward the head/top)
EX. depression- drop jaw, shoulder down
elevation- close jaw, shrug shoulders

41

what is protraction and retraction?

protraction: moves a body part in an ANTERIOR (toward front) direction
retraction: moves a body part in a POSTERIOR (toward back) direction
EX. protraction- bottom jaw teeth over maxilla
retraction-over bite

42

what is inversion and eversion?

inversion: rotational motion where plantar surface of foot rotates medially TOWARD midline of body
eversion: rotates foot laterally AWAY from midline
ex. inversion- in, ankle on big toe side
eversion- out, ankle on pinky toe side

43

what is dorsiflexion and plantarflexion?

dorsiflexion: movement where angle btwn foot & leg DECREASES
plantarflexion: angle btwn foot & leg INCREASES
EX. dorsiflexion- standing on heel
plantarflexion- standing on toes

44

what is supination and pronation

supination: rotational movements of wrist & ankle region (counterclockwise for left hand/ ankle)
pronation: rotational movements of wrist & ankle regions (clock wise for left hand/wrist)
-opposite for right hand
Ex. QUEEN WAVE
anatomical position is supination

45

Functions of joints? (2)

hold bones together
allow skeleton flexibility to move